HOW TO SHOP

1Click on the product link.
2Make a purchase on Amazon.com.
3With PRIME you will get a FREE shipping

If you still have problems, please let us know, by sending an email to info@holisticmindtherapy.org Thank you!

OFFICE HOURS

Tue-Fri 11:00AM - 9:00PM
Sat and Sun- 11:00AM-9:00PM
Mondays by appointment only!

Call us at (954)703-4039

 

CREATE ACCOUNT

*

*

*

*

*

*

FORGOT YOUR PASSWORD?

*

The Project Gutenberg eBook, Complete Hypnotism: Mesmerism, Mind-Reading
and Spiritualism, by A. Alpheus
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Complete Hypnotism: Mesmerism, Mind-Reading and Spiritualism
       How to Hypnotize: Being an Exhaustive and Practical System of Method, Application, and Use
Author: A. Alpheus
Release Date: September 20, 2006  [eBook #19342]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-646-US (US-ASCII)
***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK COMPLETE HYPNOTISM: MESMERISM,
MIND-READING AND SPIRITUALISM***
E-text prepared by Jerry Kuntz as part of the Lawson's Progress Project
COMPLETE HYPNOTISM: MESMERISM, MIND-READING AND SPIRITUALISM
How to Hypnotize: Being an Exhaustive and Practical System of Method,
Application, and Use
by
A. ALPHEUS
1903
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION--History of hypnotism--Mesmer--Puysegur--Braid--What is
hypnotism?--Theories of hypnotism: 1. Animal magnetism; 2. The Neurosis
Theory; 3. Suggestion Theory
CHAPTER I--How to Hypnotize--Dr. Cocke's method-Dr. Flint's method--The
French method at Paris--At Nancy--The Hindoo silent method--How to wake a
subject from hypnotic sleep--Frauds of public hypnotic entertainments.
CHAPTER II--Amusing experiments--Hypnotizing on the stage--"You can't pull
your hands apart!"--Post-hypnotic suggestion--The newsboy, the hunter, and
the young man with the rag doll--A whip becomes hot iron--Courting a broom
stick--The side-show
CHAPTER III--The stages of hypnotism--Lethargy-Catalepsy--The
somnambulistic stage--Fascination
CHAPTER IV--How the subject feels under hypnotization--Dr. Cocke's
experience--Effect of music--Dr. Alfred Warthin's experiments
CHAPTER V--Self hypnotization--How it may be done--An
experience--Accountable for children's crusade--Oriental prophets
self-hypnotized
CHAPTER VI--Simulation--Deception in hypnotism very common--Examples of
Neuropathic deceit--Detecting simulation--Professional subjects--How
Dr. Luys of the Charity Hospital at Paris was deceived--Impossibility of
detecting deception in all cases--Confessions of a professional hypnotic
subject
CHAPTER VII--Criminal suggestion--Laboratory crimes--Dr. Cocke's
experiments showing criminal suggestion is not possible--Dr. William
James' theory--A bad man cannot be made good, why expect to make a good
man bad?
CHAPTER VIII--Dangers in being hypnotized Condemnation of public
performances--A commonsense view--Evidence furnished by Lafontaine; by Dr.
Courmelles; by Dr. Hart; by Dr. Cocke--No danger in hypnotism if rightly
used by physicians or scientists
CHAPTER IX--Hypnotism in medicine--Anesthesia--Restoring the use of
muscles--Hallucination--Bad habits
CHAPTER X--Hypnotism of animals--Snake charming
CHAPTER XI--A scientific explanation of hypnotism--Dr. Hart's theory
CHAPTER XII--Telepathy and Clairvoyance--Peculiar power in hypnotic
state--Experiments--"Phantasms of the living" explained by telepathy
CHAPTER XIII--The Confessions of a Medium--Spiritualistic phenomena
explained on theory of telepathy--Interesting statement of Mrs. Piper,
the famous medium of the Psychical Research Society
INTRODUCTION.
There is no doubt that hypnotism is a very old subject, though the name
was not invented till 1850. In it was wrapped up the "mysteries of Isis"
in Egypt thousands of years ago, and probably it was one of the weapons,
if not the chief instrument of operation, of the magi mentioned in the
Bible and of the "wise men" of Babylon and Egypt. "Laying on of hands"
must have been a form of mesmerism, and Greek oracles of Delphi and
other places seem to have been delivered by priests or priestesses who
went into trances of self-induced hypnotism. It is suspected that the
fakirs of India who make trees grow from dry twigs in a few minutes, or
transform a rod into a serpent (as Aaron did in Bible history), operate
by some form of hypnotism. The people of the East are much more subject
to influences of this kind than Western peoples are, and there can be no
question that the religious orgies of heathendom were merely a form of
that hysteria which is so closely related to the modern phenomenon of
hypnotism. Though various scientific men spoke of magnetism, and
understood that there was a power of a peculiar kind which one man could
exercise over another, it was not until Frederick Anton Mesmer (a doctor
of Vienna) appeared in 1775 that the general public gave any special
attention to the subject. In the year mentioned, Mesmer sent out a
circular letter to various scientific societies or "Academies" as they
are called in Europe, stating his belief that "animal magnetism"
existed, and that through it one man could influence another. No
attention was given his letter, except by the Academy of Berlin, which
sent him an unfavorable reply.
In 1778 Mesmer was obliged for some unknown reason to leave Vienna, and
went to Paris, where he was fortunate in converting to his ideas
d'Eslon, the Comte d'Artois's physician, and one of the medical
professors at the Faculty of Medicine. His success was very great;
everybody was anxious to be magnetized, and the lucky Viennese doctor
was soon obliged to call in assistants. Deleuze, the librarian at the
Jardin des Plantes, who has been called the Hippocrates of magnetism,
has left the following account of Mesmer's experiments:
"In the middle of a large room stood an oak tub, four or five feet in
diameter and one foot deep. It was closed by a lid made in two pieces,
and encased in another tub or bucket. At the bottom of the tub a number
of bottles were laid in convergent rows, so that the neck of each bottle
turned towards the centre. Other bottles filled with magnetized water
tightly corked up were laid in divergent rows with their necks turned
outwards. Several rows were thus piled up, and the apparatus was then
pronounced to be at 'high pressure'. The tub was filled with water, to
which were sometimes added powdered glass and iron filings. There were
also some dry tubs, that is, prepared in the same manner, but without
any additional water. The lid was perforated to admit of the passage of
movable bent rods, which could be applied to the different parts of the
patient's body. A long rope was also fastened to a ring in the lid, and
this the patients placed loosely round their limbs. No disease offensive
to the sight was treated, such as sores, or deformities.
"A large number of patients were commonly treated at one time. They drew
near to each other, touching hands, arms, knees, or feet. The
handsomest, youngest, and most robust magnetizers held also an iron rod
with which they touched the dilatory or stubborn patients. The rods and
ropes had all undergone a 'preparation' and in a very short space of
time the patients felt the magnetic influence. The women, being the most
easily affected, were almost at once seized with fits of yawning and
stretching; their eyes closed, their legs gave way and they seemed to
suffocate. In vain did musical glasses and harmonicas resound, the piano
and voices re-echo; these supposed aids only seemed to increase the
patients' convulsive movements. Sardonic laughter, piteous moans and
torrents of tears burst forth on all sides. The bodies were thrown back
in spasmodic jerks, the respirations sounded like death rattles, the
most terrifying symptoms were exhibited. Then suddenly the actors of
this strange scene would frantically or rapturously rush towards each
other, either rejoicing and embracing or thrusting away their neighbors
with every appearance of horror.
"Another room was padded and presented another spectacle. There women
beat their heads against wadded walls or rolled on the cushion-covered
floor, in fits of suffocation. In the midst of this panting, quivering
throng, Mesmer, dressed in a lilac coat, moved about, extending a magic
wand toward the least suffering, halting in front of the most violently
excited and gazing steadily into their eyes, while he held both their
hands in his, bringing the middle fingers in immediate contact to
establish communication. At another moment he would, by a motion of open
hands and extended fingers, operate with the great current, crossing and
uncrossing his arms with wonderful rapidity to make the final passes."
Hysterical women and nervous young boys, many of them from the highest
ranks of Society, flocked around this wonderful wizard, and incidentally
he made a great deal of money. There is little doubt that he started out
as a genuine and sincere student of the scientific character of the new
power he had indeed discovered; there is also no doubt that he
ultimately became little more than a charlatan. There was, of course, no
virtue in his "prepared" rods, nor in his magnetic tubs. At the same
time the belief of the people that there was virtue in them was one of
the chief means by which he was able to induce hypnotism, as we shall
see later. Faith, imagination, and willingness to be hypnotized on the
part of the subject are all indispensable to entire success in the
practice of this strange art.
In 1779 Mesmer published a pamphlet entitled "Memoire sur la decouverte
du magnetisme animal", of which Doctor Cocke gives the following summary
(his chief claim was that he had discovered a principle which would cure
every disease):
"He sets forth his conclusions in twenty-seven propositions, of which
the substance is as follows:-- There is a reciprocal action and reaction
between the planets, the earth and animate nature by means of a constant
universal fluid, subject to mechanical laws yet unknown. The animal body
is directly affected by the insinuation of this agent into the substance
of the nerves. It causes in human bodies properties analogous to those
of the magnet, for which reason it is called 'Animal Magnetism'. This
magnetism may be communicated to other bodies, may be increased and
reflected by mirrors, communicated, propagated, and accumulated, by
sound. It may be accumulated, concentrated, and transported. The same
rules apply to the opposite virtue. The magnet is susceptible of
magnetism and the opposite virtue. The magnet and artificial electricity
have, with respect to disease, properties common to a host of other
agents presented to us by nature, and if the use of these has been
attended by useful results, they are due to animal magnetism. By the aid
of magnetism, then, the physician enlightened as to the use of medicine
may render its action more perfect, and can provoke and direct salutary
crises so as to have them completely under his control."
The Faculty of Medicine investigated Mesmer's claims, but reported
unfavorably, and threatened d'Eslon with expulsion from the society
unless he gave Mesmer up. Nevertheless the government favored the
discoverer, and when the medical fraternity attacked him with such vigor
that he felt obliged to leave Paris, it offered him a pension of 20,000
francs if he would remain. He went away, but later came back at the
request of his pupils. In 1784 the government appointed two commissions
to investigate the claims that had been made. On one of these
commissions was Benjamin Franklin, then American Ambassador to France as
well as the great French scientist Lavoisier. The other was drawn from
the Royal Academy of Medicine, and included Laurent de Jussieu, the only
man who declared in favor of Mesmer.
There is no doubt that Mesmer had returned to Paris for the purpose of
making money, and these commissions were promoted in part by persons
desirous of driving him out. "It is interesting," says a French writer,
"to peruse the reports of these commissions: they read like a debate on
some obscure subject of which the future has partly revealed the
secret." Says another French writer (Courmelles): "They sought the
fluid, not by the study of the cures affected, which was considered too
complicated a task, but in the phases of mesmeric sleep. These were
considered indispensable and easily regulated by the experimentalist.
When submitted to close investigation, it was, however, found that they
could only be induced when the subjects knew they were being magnetized,
and that they differed according as they were conducted in public or in
private. In short--whether it be a coincidence or the truth--imagination
was considered the sole active agent. Whereupon d'Eslon remarked, 'If
imagination is the best cure, why should we not use the imagination as a
curative means?' Did he, who had so vaunted the existence of the fluid,
mean by this to deny its existence, or was it rather a satirical way of
saying. 'You choose to call it imagination; be it so. But after all, as
it cures, let us make the most of it'?
"The two commissions came to the conclusion that the phenomena were due
to imitation, and contact, that they were dangerous and must be
prohibited. Strange to relate, seventy years later, Arago pronounced the
same verdict!"
Daurent Jussieu was the only one who believed in anything more than
this. He saw a new and important truth, which he set forth in a personal
report upon withdrawing from the commission, which showed itself so
hostile to Mesmer and his pretensions.
Time and scientific progress have largely overthrown Mesmer's theories
of the fluid; yet Mesmer had made a discovery that was in the course of
a hundred years to develop into an important scientific study. Says
Vincent: "It seems ever the habit of the shallow scientist to plume
himself on the more accurate theories which have been provided f, by the
progress of knowledge and of science, and then, having been fed with a
limited historical pabulum, to turn and talk lightly, and with an air of
the most superior condescension, of the weakness and follies of those
but for whose patient labors our modern theories would probably be
non-existent." If it had not been for Mesmer and his "Animal Magnetism",
we would never have had "hypnotism" and all our learned societies for the
study of it.
Mesmer, though his pretensions were discredited, was quickly followed by
Puysegur, who drew all the world to Buzancy, near Soissons, France.
"Doctor Cloquet related that he saw there, patients no longer the
victims of hysterical fits, but enjoying a calm, peaceful, restorative
slumber. It may be said that from this moment really efficacious and
useful magnetism became known." Every one rushed once more to be
magnetized, and Puysegur had so many patients that to care for them all
he was obliged to magnetize a tree (as he said), which was touched by
hundreds who came to be cured, and was long known as "Puysegur's tree".
As a result of Puysegur's success, a number of societies were formed in
France for the study of the new phenomena.
In the meantime, the subject had attracted considerable interest in
Germany, and in 1812 Wolfart was sent to Mesmer at Frauenfeld by the
Prussian government to investigate Mesmerism. He became an enthusiast,
and introduced its practice into the hospital at Berlin.
In 1814 Deleuze published a book on the subject, and Abbe Faria, who had
come from India, demonstrated that there was no fluid, but that the
phenomena were subjective, or within the mind of the patient. He first
introduced what is now called the "method of suggestion" in producing
magnetism or hypnotism. In 1815 Mesmer died.
Experimentation continued, and in the 20's Foissac persuaded the Academy
of Medicine to appoint a commission to investigate the subject. After
five years they presented a report. This report gave a good statement of
the practical operation of magnetism, mentioning the phenomena of
somnambulism, anesthesia, loss of memory, and the various other symptoms
of the hypnotic state as we know it. It was thought that magnetism had a
right to be considered as a therapeutic agent, and that it might be used
by physicians, though others should not be allowed to practice it. In
1837 another commission made a decidedly unfavorable report.
Soon after this Burdin, a member of the Academy, offered a prize of
3,000 francs to any one who would read the number of a bank-note or the
like with his eyes bandaged (under certain fixed conditions), but it was
never awarded, though many claimed it, and there has been considerable
evidence that persons in the hypnotic state have (sometimes) remarkable
clairvoyant powers.
Soon after this, magnetism fell into very low repute throughout France
and Germany, and scientific men became loath to have their names
connected with the study of it in any way. The study had not yet been
seriously taken up in England, and two physicians who gave some
attention to it suffered decidedly in professional reputation.
It is to an English physician, however, that we owe the scientific
character of modern hypnotism. Indeed he invented the name of hypnotism,
formed from the Greek word meaning 'sleep', and designating
'artificially produced sleep'. His name is James Braid, and so important
were the results of his study that hypnotism has sometimes been called
"Braidism". Doctor Courmelles gives the following interesting summary of
Braid's experiences:
"November, 1841, he witnessed a public experiment made by Monsieur
Lafontaine, a Swiss magnetizer. He thought the whole thing a comedy; a
week after, he attended a second exhibition, saw that the patient could
not open his eyes, and concluded that this was ascribable to some
physical cause. The fixity of gaze must, according to him, exhaust the
nerve centers of the eyes and their surroundings. He made a friend look
steadily at the neck of a bottle, and his own wife look at an
ornamentation on the top of a china sugar bowl: sleep was the
consequence. Here hypnotism had its origin, and the fact was established
that sleep could be induced by physical agents. This, it must be
remembered, is the essential difference between these two classes of
phenomena (magnetism and hypnotism): for magnetism supposes a direct
action of the magnetizer on the magnetized subject, an action which does
not exist in hypnotism."
It may be stated that most English and American operators fail to see
any distinction between magnetism and hypnotism, and suppose that the
effect of passes, etc., as used by Mesmer, is in its way as much
physical as the method of producing hypnotism by concentrating the gaze
of the subject on a bright object, or the like.
Braid had discovered a new science--as far as the theoretical view of it
was concerned--for he showed that hypnotism is largely, if not purely,
mechanical and physical. He noted that during one phase of hypnotism,
known as catalepsy, the arms, limbs, etc., might be placed in any
position and would remain there; he also noted that a puff of breath
would usually awaken a subject, and that by talking to a subject and
telling him to do this or do that, even after he awakes from the sleep,
he can be made to do those things. Braid thought he might affect a
certain part of the brain during hypnotic sleep, and if he could find
the seat of the thieving disposition, or the like, he could cure the
patient of desire to commit crime, simply by suggestion, or command.
Braid's conclusions were, in brief, that there was no fluid, or other
exterior agent, but that hypnotism was due to a physiological condition
of the nerves. It was his belief that hypnotic sleep was brought about
by fatigue of the eyelids, or by other influences wholly within the
subject. In this he was supported by Carpenter, the great physiologist;
but neither Braid nor Carpenter could get the medical organizations to
give the matter any attention, even to investigate it. In 1848 an
American named Grimes succeeded in obtaining all the phenomena of
hypnotism, and created a school of writers who made use of the word
"electro-biology."
In 1850 Braid's ideas were introduced into France, and Dr. Azam, of
Bordeaux, published an account of them in the "Archives de Medicine."
From this time on the subject was widely studied by scientific men in
France and Germany, and it was more slowly taken up in England. It may
be stated here that the French and other Latin races are much more
easily hypnotized than the northern races, Americans perhaps being least
subject to the hypnotic influence, and next to them the English. On the
other hand, the Orientals are influenced to a degree we can hardly
comprehend.
WHAT IS HYPNOTISM?
We have seen that so far the history of hypnotism has given us two
manifestations, or methods, that of passes and playing upon the
imagination in various ways, used by Mesmer, and that of physical means,
such as looking at a bright object, used by Braid. Both of these methods
are still in use, and though hundreds of scientific men, including many
physicians, have studied the subject for years, no essentially new
principle has been discovered, though the details of hypnotic operation
have been thoroughly classified and many minor elements of interest have
been developed. All these make a body of evidence which will assist us
in answering the question, What is hypnotism?
Modern scientific study has pretty conclusively established the
following facts:
1. Idiots, babies under three years old, and hopelessly insane people
cannot be hypnotized.
2. No one can be hypnotized unless the operator can make him concentrate
his attention for a reasonable length of time. Concentration of
attention, whatever the method of producing hypnotism, is absolutely
necessary.
3. The persons not easily hypnotized are those said to be neurotic (or
those affected with hysteria). By "hysteria" is not meant nervous
excitability, necessarily. Some very phlegmatic persons may be affected
with hysteria. In medical science "hysteria" is an irregular action of
the nervous system. It will sometimes show itself by severe pains in the
arm, when in reality there is nothing whatever to cause pain; or it will
raise a swelling on the head quite without cause. It is a tendency to
nervous disease which in severe cases may lead to insanity. The word
neurotic is a general term covering affection of the nervous system. It
includes hysteria and much else beside.
On all these points practically every student of hypnotism is agreed. On
the question as to whether any one can produce hypnotism by pursuing the
right methods there is some disagreement, but not much. Dr. Ernest Hart
in an article in the British Medical Journal makes the following very
definite statement, representing the side of the case that maintains
that any one can produce hypnotism. Says he:
"It is a common delusion that the mesmerist or hypnotizer counts for
anything in the experiment. The operator, whether priest, physician,
charlatan, self-deluded enthusiast, or conscious imposter, is not the
source of any occult influence, does not possess any mysterious power,
and plays only a very secondary and insignificant part in the chain of
phenomena observed. There exist at the present time many individuals who
claim for themselves, and some who make a living by so doing, a peculiar
property or power as potent mesmerizers, hypnotizers, magnetizers, or
electro-biologists. One even often hears it said in society (for I am
sorry to say that these mischievous practices and pranks are sometimes
made a society game) that such a person is a clever hypnotist or has
great mesmeric or healing power. I hope to be able to prove, what I
firmly hold, both from my own personal experience and experiment, as I
have already related in the Nineteenth Century, that there is no such
thing as a potent mesmeric influence, no such power resident in any one
person more than another; that a glass of water, a tree, a stick, a
penny-post letter, or a lime-light can mesmerize as effectually as can
any individual. A clever hypnotizer means only a person who is
acquainted with the physical or mental tricks by which the hypnotic
condition is produced; or sometimes an unconscious imposter who is
unaware of the very trifling part for which he is cast in the play, and
who supposes himself really to possess a mysterious power which in, fact
he does not possess at all, or which, to speak more accurately, is
equally possessed by every stock or stone."
Against this we may place the statement of Dr. Foveau de Courmelles, who
speaks authoritatively for the whole modern French school. He says:
"Every magnetizer is aware that certain individuals never can induce
sleep even in the most easily hypnotizable subjects. They admit that the
sympathetic fluid is necessary, and that each person may eventually find
his or her hypnotizer, even when numerous attempts at inducing sleep
have failed. However this may be, the impossibility some individuals
find in inducing sleep in trained subjects, proves at least the
existence of a negative force."
If you would ask the present writer's opinion, gathered from all the
evidence before him, he would say that while he has no belief in the
existence of any magnetic fluid, or anything that corresponds to it, he
thinks there can be no doubt that some people will succeed as hypnotists
while some will fail, just as some fail as carpenters while others
succeed. This is true in every walk of life. It is also true that some
people attract, others repel, the people they meet. This is not very
easily explained, but we have all had opportunity to observe it. Again,
since concentration is the prerequisite for producing hypnotism, one who
has not the power of concentration himself, and concentration which he
can perfectly control, is not likely to be able to secure it in others.
Also, since faith is a strong element, a person who has not perfect
self-confidence could not expect to create confidence in others. While
many successful hypnotizers can themselves be hypnotized, it is probable
that most all who have power of this kind are themselves exempt from the
exercise of it. It is certainly true that while a person easily
hypnotized is by no means weak-minded (indeed, it is probable that most
geniuses would be good hypnotic subjects), still such persons have not a
well balanced constitution and their nerves are high-strung if not
unbalanced. They would be most likely to be subject to a person who had
such a strong and well-balanced nervous constitution that it would be
hard to hypnotize. And it is always safe to say that the strong may
control the weak, but it is not likely that the weak will control the
strong.
There is also another thing that must be taken into account. Science
teaches that all matter is in vibration. Indeed, philosophy points to
the theory that matter itself is nothing more than centers of force in
vibration. The lowest vibration we know is that of sound. Then comes, at
an enormously higher rate, heat, light (beginning at dark red and
passing through the prismatic colors to violet which has a high
vibration), to the chemical rays, and then the so-called X or unknown
rays which have a much higher vibration still. Electricity is a form of
vibration, and according to the belief of many scientists, life is a
species of vibration so high that we have no possible means of measuring
it. As every student of science knows, air appears to be the chief
medium for conveying vibration of sound, metal is the chief medium for
conveying electric vibrations, while to account for the vibrations of
heat and light we have to assume (or imagine) an invisible, imponderable
ether which fills all space and has no property of matter that we can
distinguish except that of conveying vibrations of light in its various
forms. When we pass on to human life, we have to theorize chiefly by
analogy. (It must not be forgotten, however, that the existence of the
ether and many assumed facts in science are only theories which have
come to be generally adopted because they explain phenomena of all kinds
better than any other theories which have been offered.)
Now, in life, as in physical science, any one who can get, or has by
nature, the key-note of another nature, has a tremendous power over that
other nature. The following story illustrates what this power is in the
physical world. While we cannot vouch for the exact truth of the details
of the story, there can be no doubt of the accuracy of the principle on
which it is based:
"A musical genius came to the Suspension Bridge at Niagara Falls, and
asked permission to cross; but as he had no money, his request was
contemptuously refused. He stepped away from the entrance, and, drawing
his violin from his case, began sounding notes up and down the scale. He
finally discovered, by the thrill that sent a tremor through the mighty
structure, that he had found the note on which the great cable that
upheld the mass, was keyed. He drew his bow across the string of the
violin again, and the colossal wire, as if under the spell of a
magician, responded with a throb that sent a wave through its enormous
length. He sounded the note again and again, and the cable that was
dormant under the strain of loaded teams and monster engines--the cable
that remained stolid under the pressure of human traffic, and the heavy
tread of commerce, thrilled and surged and shook itself, as mad waves of
vibration coursed over its length, and it tore at its slack, until like
a foam-crested wave of the sea, it shook the towers at either end, or,
like some sentient animal, it tugged at its fetters and longed to be
free.
"The officers in charge, apprehensive of danger, hurried the poor
musician across, and bade him begone and trouble them no more. The
ragged genius, putting his well-worn instrument back in its case,
muttered to himself, 'I'd either crossed free or torn down the bridge.'"
"So the hypnotist," goes on the writer from which the above is quoted,
"finds the note on which the subjective side of the person is attuned,
and by playing upon it awakens into activity emotions and sensibilities
that otherwise would have remained dormant, unused and even
unsuspected."
No student of science will deny the truth of these statements. At the
same time it has been demonstrated again and again that persons can and
do frequently hypnotize themselves. This is what Mr. Hart means when he
says that any stick or stone may produce hypnotism. If a person will
gaze steadily at a bright fire, or a glass of water, for instance, he
can throw himself into a hypnotic trance exactly similar to the
condition produced by a professional or trained hypnotist. Such people,
however, must be possessed of imagination.
THEORIES OF HYPNOTISM.
We have now learned some facts in regard to hypnotism; but they leave
the subject still a mystery. Other facts which will be developed in the
course of this book will only deepen the mystery. We will therefore
state some of the best known theories.
Before doing so, however, it would be well to state concisely just what
seems to happen in a case of hypnotism. The word hypnotism means sleep,
and the definition of hypnotism implies artificially produced sleep.
Sometimes this sleep is deep and lasting, and the patient is totally
insensible; but the interesting phase of the condition is that in
certain stages the patient is only partially asleep, while the other
part of his brain is awake and very active.
It is well known that one part of the brain may be affected without
affecting the other parts. In hemiplegia, for instance, one half of the
nervous system is paralyzed, while the other half is all right. In the
stages of hypnotism we will now consider, the will portion of the brain
or mind seems to be put to sleep, while the other faculties are,
abnormally awake. Some explain this by supposing that the blood is
driven out of one portion of the brain and driven into other portions.
In any case, it is as though the human engine were uncoupled, and the
patient becomes an automaton. If he is told to do this, that, or the
other, he does it, simply because his will is asleep and "suggestion",
as it is called, from without makes him act just as he starts up
unconsciously in his ordinary sleep if tickled with a straw.
Now for the theories. There are three leading theories, known as that of
1. Animal Magnetism; 2. Neurosis; and 3. Suggestion. We will simply
state them briefly in order without discussion.
Animal Magnetism. This is the theory offered by Mesmer, and those who
hold it assume that "the hypnotizer exercises a force, independently of
suggestion, over the subject. They believe one part of the body to be
charged separately, or that the whole body may be filled with magnetism.
They recognize the power, of suggestion, but they do not believe it to
be the principal factor in the production of the hypnotic state." Those
who hold this theory today distinguish between the phenomena produced by
magnetism and those produced by physical means or simple suggestion.
The Neurosis Theory. We have already explained the word neurosis, but we
repeat here the definition given by Dr. J. R. Cocke. "A neurosis is any
affection of the nervous centers occurring without any material agent
producing it, without inflammation or any other constant structural
change which can be detected in the nervous centers. As will be seen
from the definition, any abnormal manifestation of the nervous system of
whose cause we know practically nothing, is, for convenience, termed a
neurosis. If a man has a certain habit or trick, it is termed a neurosis
or neuropathic habit. One man of my acquaintance, who is a professor in
a college, always begins his lecture by first sneezing and then pulling
at his nose. Many forms of tremor are called neurosis. Now to say that
hypnotism is the result of a. neurosis, simply means that a person's
nervous system is susceptible to this condition, which, by M. Charcot
and his followers, is regarded as abnormal." In short, M. Charcot places
hypnotism in the same category of nervous affections in which hysteria
and finally hallucination (medically considered) are to be classed, that
is to say, as a nervous weakness, not to say a disease. According to
this theory, a person whose nervous system is perfectly healthy could
not be hypnotized. So many people can be hypnotized because nearly all
the world is more or less insane, as a certain great writer has
observed.
Suggestion. This theory is based on the power of mind over the body as
we observe it in everyday life. Again let me quote from Dr. Cooke. "If
we can direct the subject's whole attention to the belief that such an
effect as before mentioned--that his arm will be paralyzed, for
instance--will take place, that effect will gradually occur. Such a
result having been once produced, the subject's will-power and power of
resistance are considerably weakened, because he is much more inclined
than at first to believe the hypnotizer's assertion. This is generally
the first step in the process of hypnosis. The method pursued at the
school of Nancy is to convince the subject that his eyes are closing by
directing his attention to that effect as strongly as possible. However,
it is not necessary that we begin with the eyes. According to M.
Dessoir, any member of the body will answer as well." The theory of
Suggestion is maintained by the medical school attached to the hospital
at Nancy. The theory of Neurosis was originally put forth as the result
of experiments by Dr. Charcot at the Salpetriere hospital in Paris,
which is now the co-called Salpetriere school--that is the medical,
school connected with the Salpetriere hospital.
There is also another theory put forth, or rather a modification of
Professor Charcot's theory, and maintained by the school of the Charity
hospital in Paris, headed by Dr. Luys, to the effect that the physical
magnet and electricity may affect persons in the hypnotic state, and
that certain drugs in sealed tubes placed upon the patient's neck during
the condition of hypnosis will produce the same effects which those
drugs would produce if taken internally, or as the nature of the drugs
would seem to call for if imbibed in a more complete fashion. This
school, however, has been considerably discredited, and Dr. Luys'
conclusions are not received by scientific students of hypnotism. It is
also stated, and the present writer has seen no effective denial, that
hypnotism may be produced by pressing with the fingers upon certain
points in the body, known as hypnogenic spots.
It will be seen that these three theories stated above are greatly at
variance with each other. The student of hypnotism will have to form a
conclusion for himself as he investigates the facts. Possibly it will be
found that the true theory is a combination of all three of those
described above. Hypnotism is certainly a complicated phenomena, and he
would be a rash man who should try to explain it in a sentence or in a
paragraph. An entire book proves a very limited space for doing it.
CHAPTER I.
HOW TO HYPNOTIZE.
Dr. Cocke's Method--Dr. Flint's Method--The French Method at Paris--at
Nancy--The Hindoo Silent Method--How to Wake a Subject from Hypnotic
Sleep--Frauds of Public Hypnotic Entertainers.
First let us quote what is said of hypnotism in Foster's Encyclopedic
Medical Dictionary. The dictionary states the derivation of the word
from the Greek word meaning sleep, and gives as synonym "Braidism". This
definition follows: "An abnormal state into which some persons may be
thrown, either by a voluntary act of their own, such as gazing
continuously with fixed attention on some bright object held close to
the eyes, or by the exercise of another person's will; characterized by
suspension of the will and consequent obedience to the promptings of
suggestions from without. The activity of the organs of special sense,
except the eye, may be heightened, and the power of the muscles
increased. Complete insensibility to pain may be induced by hypnotism,
and it has been used as an anaesthetic. It is apt to be followed by a
severe headache of long continuance, and by various nervous
disturbances. On emerging from the hypnotic state, the person hypnotized
usually has no remembrance of what happened during its continuance, but
in many persons such remembrance may be induced by 'suggestion'. About
one person in three is susceptible to hypnotism, and those of the
hysterical or neurotic tendency (but rarely the insane) are the most
readily hypnotized."
First we will quote the directions for producing hypnotism given by Dr.
James R. Cocke, one of the most scientific experimenters in hypnotism in
America. His directions of are special value, since they are more
applicable to American subjects than the directions given by French
writers. Says Dr. Cocke:
"The hypnotic state can be produced in one of the following ways: First,
command the subject to close his eyes. Tell him his mind is a blank.
Command him to think of nothing. Leave him a few minutes; return and
tell him he cannot open his eyes. If he fails to do so, then begin to
make any suggestion which may be desired. This is the so-called mental
method of hypnotization.
"Secondly, give the subject a coin or other bright object. Tell him to
look steadfastly at it and not take his eyes away from it. Suggest that
his eyelids are growing heavy, that he cannot keep them open. Now close
the lids. They cannot be opened. This is the usual method employed by
public exhibitors. A similar method is by looking into a mirror, or into
a glass of water, or by rapidly revolving polished disks, which should
be looked at steadfastly in the same way as is the coin, and I think
tires the eyes less.
"Another method is by simply commanding the subject to close his eyes,
while the operator makes passes over his head and hands without coming
in contact with them. Suggestions may be made during these passes.
"Fascination, as it is called, is one of the hypnotic states. The
operator fixes his eyes on those of the subject. Holding his attention
for a few minutes, the operator begins to walk backward; the subject
follows. The operator raises the arm; the subject does likewise.
Briefly, the subject will imitate any movement of the hypnotist, or will
obey any suggestion made by word, look or gesture, suggested by the one
with whom he is en rapport.
"A very effective method of hypnotizing a person is by commanding him
to sleep, and having some very soft music played upon the piano, or
other stringed instrument. Firm pressure over the orbits, or over the
finger-ends and root of the nail for some minutes may also induce the
condition of hypnosis in very sensitive persons.
"Also hypnosis can frequently be induced by giving the subject a glass
of water, and telling him at the same time that it has been magnetized.
The wearing of belts around the body, and rings round the fingers, will
also, sometimes, induce a degree of hypnosis, if the subject has been
told that they have previously been magnetized or are electric. The
latter descriptions are the so-called physical methods described by Dr.
Moll."
Dr. Herbert L. Flint, a stage hypnotizer, describes his methods as
follows:
"To induce hypnotism, I begin by friendly conversation to place my
patient in a condition of absolute calmness and quiescence. I also try
to win his confidence by appealing to his own volitional effort to aid
me in obtaining the desired clad. I impress upon him that hypnosis in
his condition is a benign agency, and far from subjugating his
mentality, it becomes intensified to so great an extent as to act as a
remedial agent.
"Having assured myself that he is in a passive condition, I suggest to
him, either with or without passes, that after looking intently at an
object for a few moments, he will experience a feeling of lassitude. I
steadily gaze at his eyes, and in a monotonous tone I continue to
suggest the various stages of sleep. As for instance, I say, 'Your
breathing is heavy. Your whole body is relaxed.' I raise his arm,
holding it in a horizontal position for a second or two, and suggest to
him that it is getting heavier and heavier. I let my hand go and his arm
falls to his side.
"'Your eyes,' I continue, 'feel tired and sleepy. They are fast closing'
repeating in a soothing tone the words 'sleepy, sleepy, sleep.' Then in
a self-assertive tone, I emphasize the suggestion by saying in an
unhesitating and positive tone, 'sleep.'
"I do not, however, use this method with all patients. It is an error to
state, as some specialists do, that from their formula there can be no
deviation; because, as no two minds are constituted alike, so they
cannot be affected alike. While one will yield by intense will exerted
through my eyes, another may, by the same means, become fretful, timid,
nervous, and more wakeful than he was before. The same rule applies to
gesture, tones of the voice, and mesmeric passes. That which has a
soothing and lulling effect on one, may have an opposite effect on
another. There can be no unvarying rule applicable to all patients. The
means must be left to the judgment of the operator, who by a long course
of psychological training should be able to judge what measures are
necessary to obtain control of his subject. Just as in drugs, one person
may take a dose without injury that will kill another, so in hypnosis,
one person can be put into a deep sleep by means that would be totally
ineffectual in another, and even then the mental states differ in each
individual--that which in one induces a gentle slumber may plunge his
neighbor into a deep cataleptic state."
That hypnotism may be produced by purely physical or mechanical means
seems to have been demonstrated by an incident which started Doctor
Burq, a Frenchman, upon a scientific inquiry which lasted many years.
"While practising as a young doctor, he had one day been obliged to go
out and had deemed it advisable to lock up a patient in his absence.
Just as he was leaving the house he heard the sound as of a body
suddenly falling. He hurried back into the room and found his patient in
a state of catalepsy. Monsieur Burq was at that time studying magnetism,
and he at once sought for the cause of this phenomenon. He noticed that
the door-handle was of copper. The next day he wrapped a glove around
the handle, again shut the patient in, and this time nothing occurred.
He interrogated the patient, but she could give him no explanation. He
then tried the effect of copper on all the subjects at the Salpetriere
and the Cochin hospitals, and found that a great number were affected by
it."
At the Charity hospital in Paris, Doctor Luys used an apparatus moved by
clockwork. Doctor Foveau, one of his pupils, thus describes it:
"The hypnotic state, generally produced by the contemplation of a bright
spot, a lamp, or the human eye, is in his case induced by a peculiar
kind of mirror. The mirrors are made of pieces of wood cut prismatically
in which fragments of mirrors are incrusted. They are generally double
and placed crosswise, and by means of clockwork revolve automatically.
They are the same as sportsmen use to attract larks, the rays of the sun
being caught and reflected on every side and from all points of the
horizon. If the little mirrors in each branch are placed in parallel
lines in front of a patient, and the rotation is rapid, the optic organ
soon becomes fatigued, and a calming soothing somnolence ensues. At
first it is not a deep sleep, the eye-lids are scarcely heavy, the
drowsiness slight and restorative. By degrees, by a species of training,
the hypnotic sleep differs more and more from natural sleep, the
individual abandons himself more and more completely, and falls into one
of the regular phases of hypnotic sleep. Without a word, without a
suggestion or any other action, Dr. Luys has made wonderful cures.
Wecker, the occulist, has by the same means entirely cured spasms of the
eye-lids."
Professor Delboeuf gives the following account of how the famous
Liebault produced hypnotism at the hospital at Nancy. We would
especially ask the reader to note what he says of Dr. Liebault's manner
and general bearing, for without doubt much of his success was due to
his own personality. Says Professor Delboeuf:
"His modus faciendi has something ingenious and simple about it,
enhanced by a tone and air of profound conviction; and his voice has
such fervor and warmth that he carries away his clients with him.
"After having inquired of the patient what he is suffering from, without
any further or closer examination, he places his hand on the patient's
forehead and, scarcely looking at him, says, 'You are going to sleep.'
Then, almost immediately, he closes the eyelids, telling him that he is
asleep. After that he raises the patient's arm, and says, 'You cannot
put your arm down.' If he does, Dr. Liebault appears hardly to notice
it. He then turns the patient's arm around, confidently affirming that
the movement cannot be stopped, and saying this he turns his own arms
rapidly around, the patient remaining all the time with his eyes shut;
then the doctor talks on without ceasing in a loud and commanding voice.
The suggestions begin:
"'You are going to be cured; your digestion will be good, your sleep
quiet, your cough will stop, your circulation will become free and
regular; you are going to feel very strong and well, you will be able to
walk about,' etc., etc. He hardly ever varies the speech. Thus he fires
away at every kind of disease at once, leaving it to the client to find
out his own. No doubt he gives some special directions, according to the
disease the patient is suffering from, but general instructions are the
chief thing.
"The same suggestions are repeated a great many times to the same
person, and, strange to say, notwithstanding the inevitable monotony of
the speeches, and the uniformity of both style and voice, the master's
tone is so ardent, so penetrating, so sympathetic, that I have never
once listened to it without a feeling of intense admiration."
The Hindoos produce sleep simply by sitting on the ground and, fixing
their eyes steadily on the subject, swaying the body in a sort of
writhing motion above the hips. By continuing this steadily and in
perfect silence for ten or fifteen minutes before a large audience,
dozens can be put to sleep at one time. In all cases, freedom from noise
or distractive incidents is essential to success in hypnotism, for
concentration must be produced.
Certain French operators maintain that hypnotism may be produced by
pressure on certain hypnogenic points or regions of the body. Among
these are the eye-balls, the crown of the head, the back of the neck and
the upper bones of the spine between the shoulder glades. Some persons
may be hypnotized by gently pressing on the skin at the base of the
finger-nails, and at the root of the nose; also by gently scratching the
neck over the great nerve center.
Hypnotism is also produced by sudden noise, as if by a Chinese gong,
etc.
HOW TO WAKE A SUBJECT FROM HYPNOTIC SLEEP.
This is comparatively easy in moot cases. Most persons will awake
naturally at the end of a few minutes, or will fall into a natural sleep
from which in an hour or two they will awake refreshed. Usually the
operator simply says to the subject, "All right, wake up now," and claps
his hands or makes some other decided noise. In some cases it is
sufficient to say, "You will wake up in five minutes"; or tell a subject
to count twelve and when he gets to ten say, "Wake up."
Persons in the lethargic state are not susceptible to verbal
suggestions, but may be awakened by lifting both eyelids.
It is said that pressure on certain regions will wake the subject, just
as pressure in certain other places will put the subject to sleep. Among
these places for awakening are the ovarian regions.
Some writers recommend the application of cold water to awaken subjects,
but this is rarely necessary. In olden times a burning coal was brought
near.
If hypnotism was produced by passes, then wakening may be brought about
by passes in the opposite direction, or with the back of the hand toward
the subject.
The only danger is likely to be found in hysterical persons. They will,
if aroused, often fall off again into a helpless state, and continue to
do so for some time to come. It is dangerous to hypnotize such subjects.
Care should be taken to awaken the subject very thoroughly before
leaving him, else headache, nausea, or the like may follow, with other
unpleasant effects. In all cases subjects should be treated gently and
with the utmost consideration, as if the subject and operator were the
most intimate friends.
It is better that the person who induces hypnotic sleep should awaken
the subject. Others cannot do it so easily, though as we have said,
subjects usually awaken themselves after a short time.
Further description of the method of producing hypnotism need not be
given; but it is proper to add that in addition to the fact that not
more than one person out of three can be hypnotized at all, even by an
experienced operator, to effect hypnotization except in a few cases
requires a great deal of patience, both on the part of the operator and
of the subject. It may require half a dozen or more trials before any
effect at all can be produced, although in some cases the effect will
come within a minute or two. After a person has been once hypnotized,
hypnotization is much easier. The most startling results are to be
obtained only after a long process of training on the part of the
subject. Public hypnotic entertainments, and even those given at the
hospitals in Paris, would be quite impossible if trained subjects were
not at hand; and in the case of the public hypnotizer, the proper
subjects are hired and placed in the audience for the express purpose of
coming forward when called for. The success of such an entertainment
could not otherwise be guaranteed. In many cases, also, this training of
subjects makes them deceivers. They learn to imitate what they see, and
since their living depends upon it, they must prove hypnotic subjects
who can always be depended upon to do just what is wanted. We may add,
however, that what they do is no more than an imitation of the real
thing. There is no grotesque manifestation on the stage, even if it is a
pure fake, which could not be matched by more startling facts taken from
undoubted scientific experience.
CHAPTER II.
AMUSING EXPERIMENTS.
Hypnotizing on the Stage--"You Can't Pull Your Hands Apart"--Post Hypnotic
Suggestion--The News boy, the Hunter, and the Young Man with the Rag
Doll--A Whip Becomes Hot Iron--Courting a Broomstick--The Side Show.
Let us now describe some of the manifestations of hypnotism, to see
just how it operates and how it exhibits itself. The following is a
description of a public performance given by Dr. Herbert L. Flint,
a very successful public operator. It is in the language of an
eye-witness--a New York lawyer.
In response to a call for volunteers, twenty young and middle-aged men
came upon the stage. They evidently belonged to the great middle-class.
The entertainment commenced by Dr. Flint passing around the group, who
were seated on the stage in a semicircle facing the audience, and
stroking each one's head and forehead, repeating the phrases, "Close
your eyes. Think of nothing but sleep. You are very tired. You are
drowsy. You feel very sleepy." As he did this, several of the volunteers
closed their eyes at once, and one fell asleep immediately. One or two
remained awake, and these did not give themselves up to the influence,
but rather resisted it.
When the doctor had completed his round and had manipulated all the
volunteers, some of those influenced were nodding, some were sound
asleep, while a few were wide awake and smiling at the rest. These
latter were dismissed as unlikely subjects.
When the stage had been cleared of all those who were not responsive,
the doctor passed around, and, snapping his finger at each individual,
awoke him. One of the subjects when questioned afterward as to what
sensation he experienced at the snapping of the fingers, replied that it
seemed to him as if something inside of his head responded, and with
this sensation he regained self-consciousness. (This is to be doubted.
As a rule, subjects in this stage of hypnotism do not feel any sensation
that they can remember, and do not become self-conscious.)
The class was now apparently wide awake, and did not differ in
appearance from their ordinary state. The doctor then took each one and
subjected him to a separate physical test, such as sealing the eyes,
fastening the hands, stiffening the fingers, arms, and legs, producing
partial catalepsy and causing stuttering and inability to speak. In
those possessing strong imaginations, he was able to produce
hallucinations, such as feeling mosquito bites, suffering from
toothache, finding the pockets filled and the hands covered with
molasses, changing identity, and many similar tests.
The doctor now asked each one to clasp his hands in front of him, and
when all had complied with the request, he repeated the phrase, "Think
your hands so fast that you can't pull them apart. They are fast. You
cannot pull them apart. Try. You can't." The whole class made frantic
efforts to unclasp their hands, but were unable to do so. The doctor's
explanation of this is, that what they were really doing was to force
their hands closer together, thus obeying the counter suggestion. That
they thought they were trying to unclasp their hands was evident from
their endeavors.
The moment he made them desist, by snapping his fingers, the spell was
broken. It was most astonishing to see that as each one awoke, he seemed
to be fully cognizant of the ridiculous position in which his comrades
were placed, and to enjoy their confusion and ludicrous attitudes. The
moment, however, he was commanded to do things equally absurd, he
obeyed. While, therefore, the class appeared to be free agents, they are
under hypnotic control.
One young fellow, aged about eighteen, said that he was addicted to the
cigarette habit. The suggestion was made to him that he would not be
able to smoke a cigarette for twenty-four hours. After the entertainment
he was asked to smoke, as was his usual habit. He was then away from any
one who could influence him. He replied that the very idea was
repugnant. However, he was induced to take a cigarette in his mouth, but
it made him ill and he flung it away with every expression of disgust.
*This is an instance of what is called post-hypnotic suggestion. Dr.
Cocke tells of suggesting to a drinker whom he was trying to cure of the
habit that for the next three days anything he took would make him
vomit; the result followed as suggested.
The same phenomena that was shown in unclasping the hands, was next
exhibited in commanding the subjects to rotate them. They immediately
began and twirled them faster and faster, in spite of their efforts to
stop. One of the subjects said he thought of nothing but the strange
action of his hands, and sometimes it puzzled him to know why they
whirled.
At this point Dr. Flint's daughter took charge of the class. She pointed
her finger at one of them, and the subject began to look steadily before
him, at which the rest of the class were highly amused. Presently the
subject's head leaned forward, the pupils of his eyes dilated and
assumed a peculiar glassy stare. He arose with a steady, gliding gait
and walked up to the lady until his nose touched her hand. Then he
stopped. Miss Flint led him to the front of the stage and left him
standing in profound slumber. He stood there, stooping, eyes set, and
vacant, fast asleep. In the meantime the act had caused great laughter
among the rest of the class. One young fellow in particular, laughed so
uproariously that tears coursed down his cheeks, and he took out his
handkerchief to wipe his eyes. Just as he was returning it to his
pocket, the lady suddenly pointed a finger at him. She was in the center
of the stage, fully fifteen feet away from the subject, but the moment
the gesture was made, his countenance fell, his mirth stopped, while
that of his companions redoubled, and the change was so obvious that the
audience shared in the laughter--but the subject neither saw nor heard.
His eyes assumed the same expression that had been noticed in his
companion's. He, too, arose in the same attitude, as if his head were
pulling the body along, and following the finger in the same way as his
predecessor, was conducted to the front of the stage by the side of the
first subject. This was repeated on half a dozen subjects, and the
manifestations were the same in each case. Those selected were now drawn
up in an irregular line in front of the stage, their eyes fixed on
vacancy, their heads bent forward, perfectly motionless. Each was then
given a suggestion. One was to be a newsboy, and sell papers. Another
was given a broomstick and told to hunt game in the woods before him.
Another was given a large rag doll and told that it was an infant, and
that he must look among the audience and discover the father. He was
informed that he could tell who the father was by the similarity and the
color of the eyes.
These suggestions were made in a loud tone, Miss Flint being no nearer
one subject than another. The bare suggestion was given, as, "Now, think
that you are a newsboy, and are selling papers," or, "Now think that you
are hunting and are going into the woods to shoot birds."
So the party was started at the same time into the audience. The one who
was impersonating a newsboy went about crying his edition in a loud
voice; while the hunter crawled along stealthily and carefully. The
newsboy even adopted the well-worn device of asking those whom he
solicited to buy to help him get rid of his stock. One man offered him a
cent, when the price was two cents. The newsboy chaffed the would-be
purchaser. He sarcastically asked him if he "didn't want the earth."
The others did what they had been told to do in the same earnest,
characteristic way.
After this performance, the class was again seated in a semicircle, and
Miss Flint selected one of them, and, taking him into the center of the
stage, showed him a small riding whip. He looked at it indifferently
enough. He was told it was a hot bar of iron, but he shook his head,
still incredulous. The suggestion was repeated, and as the glazed look
came into his eyes, the incredulous look died out. Every member of the
class was following the suggestion made to the subject in hand. All of
them had the same expression in their eyes. The doctor said that his
daughter was hypnotizing the whole class through this one individual.
As she spoke she lightly touched the subject with the end of the whip.
The moment the subject felt the whip he jumped and shrieked as if it
really were a hot iron. She touched each one of the class in succession,
and every one manifested the utmost pain and fear. One subject sat down
on the floor and cried in dire distress. Others, when touched, would
tear off their clothing or roll up their sleeves. One young man was
examined by a physician present just after the whip had been laid across
his shoulders, and a long red mark was found, just such a one as would
have been made by a real hot iron. The doctor said that, had the
suggestion been continued, it would undoubtedly have raised a blister.
One of the amusing experiments tried at a later time was that of a tall
young man, diffident, pale and modest, being given a broom carefully
wrapped in a sheet, and told that it was his sweetheart. He accepted the
situation and sat down by the broom. He was a little sheepish at first,
but eventually he grew bolder, and smiled upon her such a smile as
Malvolio casts upon Olivia. The manner in which, little by little, he
ventured upon a familiar footing, was exceedingly funny; but when, in a
moment of confident response to his wooing, he clasped her round the
waist and imprinted a chaste kiss upon the brushy part of the broom,
disguised by the sheet, the house resounded with roars of laughter. The
subject, however, was deaf to all of the noise. He was absorbed in his
courtship, and he continued to hug the broom, and exhibit in his
features that idiotic smile that one sees only upon the faces of lovers
and bridegrooms. "All the world loves a lover," as the saying is, and
all the world loves to laugh at him.
One of the subjects was told that the head of a man in the audience was
on fire. He looked for a moment, and then dashed down the platform into
the audience, and, seizing the man's head, vigorously rubbed it. As this
did not extinguish the flames, he took off his coat and put the fire
out. In doing this, he set his coat on fire, when he trampled it under
foot. Then he calmly resumed his garment and walked back to the stage.
The "side-show" closed the evening's entertainment. A young man was told
to think of himself as managing a side-show at a circus. When his mind
had absorbed this idea he was ordered to open his exhibition. He at once
mounted a table, and, in the voice of the traditional side-show fakir,
began to dilate upon the fat woman and the snakes, upon the wild man
from Borneo, upon the learned pig, and all the other accessories of
side-shows. He went over the usual characteristic "patter," getting more
and more in earnest, assuring his hearers that for the small sum of ten
cents they could see more wonders than ever before had been crowded
under one canvas tent. He harangued the crowd as they surged about the
tent door. He pointed to a suppositious canvas picture. He "chaffed" the
boys. He flattered the vanity of the young fellows with their girls,
telling them that they could not afford, for the small sum of ten cents,
to miss this great show. He made change for his patrons. He indulged in
side remarks, such as "This is hot work." He rolled up his sleeves and
took off his collar and necktie, all of the time expatiating upon the
merits of the freaks inside of his tent.
CHAPTER III.
THE STAGES OF HYPNOTISM.
Lethargy--Catalepsy--The Somnambulistic Stage--Fascination.
We have just given some of the amusing experiments that may be performed
with subjects in one of the minor stages of hypnotism. But there are
other stages which give entirely different manifestations. For a
scientific classification of these we are indebted to Professor Charcot,
of the Salpetriere hospital in Paris, to whom, next to Mesmer and Braid,
we are indebted for the present science of hypnotism. He recognized
three distinct stages--lethargy, catalepsy and somnambulism. There is
also a condition of extreme lethargy, a sort of trance state, that lasts
for days and even weeks, and, indeed, has been known to last for years.
There is also a lighter phase than somnambulism, that is called
fascination. Some doctors, however, place it between catalepsy and
somnambulism. Each of these stages is marked by quite distinct
phenomena. We give them as described by a pupil of Dr. Charcot.
LETHARGY.
This is a state of absolute inert sleep. If the method of Braid is used,
and a bright object is held quite near the eyes, and the eyes are fixed
upon it, the subject squints, the eyes become moist and bright, the look
fixed, and the pupils dilated. This is the cataleptic stage. If the
object is left before the eyes, lethargy is produced. There are also
many other ways of producing lethargy, as we have seen in the chapter
"How to Hypnotize."
One of the marked characteristics of this stage of hypnotism is the
tendency of the muscles to contract, under the influence of the
slightest touch, friction, pressure or massage, or even that of a magnet
placed at a distance. The contraction disappears only by the repetition
of that identical means that called it into action. Dr. Courmelles gives
the following illustration:
"If the forearm is rubbed a little above the palm of the hand, this
latter yields and bends at an acute angle. The subject may be suspended
by the hand, and the body will be held up without relaxation, that is,
without returning to the normal condition. To return to the normal
state, it suffices to rub the antagonistic muscles, or, in ordinary
terms, the part diametrically opposed to that which produced the
phenomenon; in this case, the forearm a little above the hands. It is
the same for any other part of the body."
The subject appears to be in a deep sleep, the eyes are either closed or
half closed, and the face is without expression. The body appears to be
in a state of complete collapse, the head is thrown back, and the arms
and legs hang loose, dropping heavily down. In this stage insensibility
is so complete that needles can be run into any part of the body without
producing pain, and surgical operations may be performed without the
slightest unpleasant effect.
This stage lasts usually but a short time, and the patient, under
ordinary conditions, will pass upward into the stage of catalepsy, in
which he opens his eyes. If the hypnotism is spontaneous, that is, if it
is due to a condition of the nervous organism which has produced it
without any outside aid, we have the condition of prolonged trance, of
which many cases have been reported. Until the discovery of hypnotism
these strange trances were little understood, and people were even
buried alive in them. A few instances reported by medical men will be
interesting. There is one reported in 1889 by a noted French physician.
Said he:
"There is at this moment in the hospital at Mulhouse a most interesting
case. A young girl twenty-two years of age has been asleep here for the
last twelve days. Her complexion is fresh and rosy, her breathing quite
normal, and her features unaltered.
"No organ seems attacked; all the vital functions are performed as in
the waking state. She is fed with milk, broth and wine, which is given
her in a spoon. Her mouth even sometimes opens of itself at the contact
of the spoon, and she swallows without the slightest difficulty. At
other times the gullet remains inert.
"The whole body is insensible. The forehead alone presents, under the
action of touch or of pricks, some reflex phenomena. However, by a
peculiarity, which is extremely interesting, she seems, by the intense
horror she shows for ether, to retain a certain amount of consciousness
and sensibility. If a drop of ether is put into her mouth her face
contracts and assumes an expression of disgust. At the same moment her
arms and legs are violently agitated, with the kind of impatient motion
that a child displays when made to swallow some hated dose of medicine.
"In the intellectual relations the brain is not absolutely obscure, for
on her mother's coming to see her the subject's face became highly
colored, and tears appeared on the tips of her eyelashes, without,
however, in any other way disturbing her lethargy.
"Nothing has yet been able to rouse her from this torpor, which will, no
doubt, naturally disappear at a given moment. She will then return to
conscious life as she quitted it. It is probable that she will not
retain any recollection of her present condition, that all notion of
time will fail her, and that she will fancy it is only the day following
her usual nightly slumber, a slumber which, in this case, has been
transformed into a lethargic sleep, without any rigidity of limbs or
convulsions.
"Physically, the sleeper is of a middle size, slender, strong and
pretty, without distinctive characteristic. Mentally, she is lively,
industrious, sometimes whimsical, and subject to slight nervous
attacks."
There is a pretty well-authenticated report of a young girl who, on May
30, 1883, after an intense fright, fell into a lethargic condition which
lasted for four years. Her parents were poor and ignorant, but, as the
fame of the case spread abroad, some physicians went to investigate it
in March, 1887. Her sleep had never been interrupted. On raising the
eyelids, the doctors found the eyes turned convulsively upward, but,
blowing upon them, produced no reflex movement of the lids. Her jaws
were closed tightly, and the attempt to open her mouth had broken off
some of the teeth level with the gums. The muscles contracted at the
least breath or touch, and the arms remained in position when uplifted.
The contraction of the muscles is a sign of the lethargic state, but the
arm, remaining in position, indicates the cataleptic state. The girl was
kept alive by liquid nourishment poured into her mouth.
There are on record a large number of cases of persons who have slept
for several months.
CATALEPSY.
The next higher stage of hypnotism is that of catalepsy. Patients may be
thrown into it directly, or patients in the lethargic state may be
brought into it by lifting the eyelids. It seems that the light
penetrating the eyes, and affecting the brain, awakens new powers, for
the cataleptic state has phenomena quite peculiar to itself.
Nearly all the means for producing hypnotism will, if carried to just
the right degree, produce catalepsy. For instance, besides the fixing
of the eye on a bright object, catalepsy may be produced by a sudden
sound, as of a Chinese gong, a tom-tom or a whistle, the vibration of a
tuning-fork, or thunder. If a solar spectrum is suddenly brought into a
dark room it may produce catalepsy, which is also produced by looking at
the sun, or a lime light, or an electric light.
In this state the patient has become perfectly rigidly fixed in the
position in which he happens to be when the effect is produced, whether
sitting, standing, kneeling, or the like; and this face has an
expression of fear. The arms or legs may be raised, but if left to
themselves will not drop, as in lethargy. The eyes are wide open, but
the look is fixed and impassive. The fixed position lasts only a few
minutes, however, when the subject returns to a position of relaxation,
or drops back into the lethargic state.
If the muscles, nerves or tendons are rubbed or pressed, paralysis may
be produced, which, however, is quickly removed by the use of
electricity, when the patient awakes. By manipulating the muscles the
most rigid contraction may be produced, until the entire body is in such
a state of corpse-like rigidity that a most startling experiment is
possible. The subject may be placed with his head upon the back of one
chair and his heels on the back of another, and a heavy man may sit upon
him without seemingly producing any effect, or even heavy rock may be
broken on the subject's body.
Messieurs Binet and Fere, pupils of the Salpetriere school, describe the
action of magnets on cataleptic subjects, as follows:
"The patient is seated near a table, on which a magnet has been placed,
the left elbow rests on the arm of the chair, the forearm and hand
vertically upraised with thumb and index finger extended, while the
other fingers remain half bent. On the right side the forearm and hand
are stretched on the table, and the magnet is placed under a linen cloth
at a distance of about two inches. After a couple of minutes the right
index begins to tremble and rise up; on the left side the extended
fingers bend down, and the hand remains limp for an instant. The right
hand and forearm rise up and assume the primitive position of the left
hand, which is now stretched out on the arm of the chair, with the waxen
pliability that pertains to the cataleptic state."
An interesting experiment may be tried by throwing a patient into
lethargy on one side and catalepsy on the other. To induce what is
called hemi-lethargy and hemi-catalepsy is not difficult. First, the
lethargic stage is induced, then one eyelid is raised, and that side
alone becomes cataleptic, and may be operated on in various interesting
ways. The arm on that side, for instance, will remain raised when
lifted, while the arm on the other side will fall heavily.
Still more interesting is the intellectual condition of the subject.
Some great man has remarked that if he wished to know what a person was
thinking of, he assumed the exact position and expression of that
person, and soon he would begin to feel and think just as the other was
thinking and feeling. Look a part and you will soon begin to feel it.
In the cataleptic subject there is a close relation between the attitude
the subject assumes and the intellectual manifestation. In the
somnambulistic stage patients are manipulated by speaking to them; in
the cataleptic stage they are equally under the will of the operator;
but now he controls them by gesture. Says Dr. Courmelles, from his own
observation: "The emotions in this stage are made at command, in the
true acceptation of the word, for they are produced, not by orders
verbally expressed, but by expressive movements. If the hands are opened
and drawn close to the mouth, as when a kiss is wafted, the mouth
smiles. If the arms are extended and half bent at the elbows, the
countenance assumes an expression of astonishment. The slightest
variation of movement is reflected in the emotions. If the fists are
closed, the brow contracts and the face expresses anger. If a lively or
sad tune is played, if amusing or depressing pictures are shown, the
subject, like a faithful mirror, at once reflects these impressions. If
a smile is produced it can be seen to diminish and disappear at the same
time as the hand is moved away, and again to reappear and increase when
it is once more brought near. Better still, a double expression can be
imparted to the physiognomy, by approaching the left hand to the left
side of the mouth, the left side of the physiognomy will smile, while at
the same time, by closing the right hand, the right eyebrow will frown.
The subject can be made to send kisses, or to turn his hands round each
other indefinitely. If the hand is brought near the nose it will blow;
if the arms are stretched out they will remain extended, while the head
will be bowed with a marked expression of pain."
Heidenhain was able to take possession of the subject's gaze and control
him by sight, through producing mimicry. He looks fixedly at the patient
till the patient is unable to take his eyes away. Then the patient will
copy every movement he makes. If he rises and goes backward the patient
will follow, and with his right hand he will imitate the movements of
the operator's left, as if he were a mirror. The attitudes of prayer,
melancholy, pain, disdain, anger or fear, may be produced in this
manner.
The experiments of Donato, a stage hypnotizer, are thus described:
"After throwing the subjects into catalepsy he causes soft music to be
played, which produces a rapturous expression. If the sound is
heightened or increased, the subjects seem to receive a shock and a
feeling of disappointment. The artistic sense developed by hypnotism is
disturbed; the faces express astonishment, stupefaction and pain. If the
same soft melody be again resumed, the same expression of rapturous
bliss reappears in the countenance. The faces become seraphic and
celestial when the subjects are by nature handsome, and when the
subjects are ordinary looking, even ugly, they are idealized as by a
special kind of beauty."
The strange part of all this is, that on awaking, the patient has no
recollection of what has taken place, and careful tests have shown that
what appear to be violent emotions, such as in an ordinary state would
produce a quickened pulse and heavy breathing, create no disturbance
whatever in the cataleptic subject; only the outer mask is in motion.
"Sometimes the subjects lean backward with all the grace of a perfect
equilibrist, freeing themselves from the ordinary mechanical laws. The
curvature will, indeed, at times be so complete that the head will touch
the floor and the body describe a regular arc.
"When a female subject assumes an attitude of devotion, clasps her
hands, turns her eyes upward and lisps out a prayer, she presents an
admirably artistic picture, and her features and expression seem worthy
of being reproduced on canvas."
We thus see what a perfect automaton the human body may become. There
appears, however, to be a sort of unconscious memory, for a familiar
object will seem to suggest spontaneously its ordinary use. Thus, if a
piece of soap is put into a cataleptic patient's hands; he will move it
around as though he thought he were washing them, and if there is any
water near he will actually wash them. The sight of an umbrella makes
him shiver as if he were in a storm. Handing such a person a pen will
not make him write, but if a letter is dictated to him out loud he will
write in an irregular hand. The subject may also be made to sing, scream
or speak different languages with which he is entirely unfamiliar. This
is, however, a verging toward the somnambulistic stage, for in deep
catalepsy the patient does not speak or hear. The state is produced by
placing the hands on the head, the forehead, or nape of the neck.
THE SOMNAMBULISTIC STAGE.
This is the stage or phase of hypnotism nearest the waking, and is the
only one that can be produced in some subjects. Patients in the
cataleptic state can be brought into the somnambulistic by rubbing the
top of the head. To all appearances, the patient is fully awake, his
eyes are open, and he answers when spoken to, but his voice does not
have the same sound as when awake. Yet, in this state the patient is
susceptible of all the hallucinations of insanity which may be induced
at the verbal command of the operator.
One of the most curious features of this stage of hypnotism is the
effect on the memory. Says Monsieur Richet: "I send V---- to sleep. I
recite some verses to her, and then I awake her. She remembers nothing.
I again send her to sleep, and she remembers perfectly the verses I
recited. I awake her, and she has again forgotten everything."
It appears, however, that if commanded to remember on awaking, a patient
may remember.
The active sense, and the memory as well, appears to be in an exalted
state of activity during this phase of hypnotism. Says M. Richet:
"M----, who will sing the air of the second act of the Africaine in her
sleep, is incapable of remembering a single note of it when awake."
Another patient, while under this hypnotic influence, could remember all
he had eaten for several days past, but when awake could remember very
little. Binet and Fere caused one of their subjects to remember the
whole of his repasts for eight days past, though when awake he could
remember nothing beyond two or three days. A patient of Dr. Charcot, who
when she was two years old had seen Dr. Parrot in the children's
hospital, but had not seen him since, and when awake could not remember
him, named him at once when he entered during her hypnotic sleep. M.
Delboeuf tells of an experiment he tried, in which the patient did
remember what had taken place during the hypnotic condition, when he
suddenly awakened her in the midst of the hallucination; as, for
instance, he told her the ashes from the cigar he was smoking had fallen
on her handkerchief and had set it on fire, whereupon she at once rose
and threw the handkerchief into the water. Then, suddenly awakened, she
remembered the whole performance.
In the somnambulistic stage the patient is no longer an automaton
merely, but a real personality, "an individual with his own character,
his likes and dislikes." The tone of the voice of the operator seems to
have quite as much effect as his words. If he speaks in a grave and
solemn tone, for instance, even if what he utters is nonsense, the
effect is that of a deeply tragic story.
The will of another is not so easily implanted as has been claimed.
While a patient will follow almost any suggestion that may be offered,
he readily obeys only commands which are in keeping with his character.
If he is commanded to do something he dislikes or which in the waking
state would be very repugnant to him, he hesitates, does it very
reluctantly, and in extreme cases refuses altogether, often going into
hysterics. It was found at the Charity hospital that one patient
absolutely refused to accept a cassock and become a priest. One of
Monsieur Richet's patients screamed with pain the moment an amputation
was suggested, but almost immediately recognized that it was only a
suggestion, and laughed in the midst of her tears. Probably, however,
this patient was not completely hypnotized.
Dr. Dumontpallier was able to produce a very curious phenomenon. He
suggested to a female patient that with the right eye she could see a
picture on a blank card. On awakening she could, indeed, see the picture
with the right eye, but the left eye told her the card was blank. While
she was in the somnambulistic state he told her in her right ear that
the weather was very fine, and at the same time another person whispered
in her left ear that it was raining. On the right side of her face she
had a smile, while the left angle of her lip dropped as if she were
depressed by the thought of the rain. Again, he describes a dance and
gay party in one ear, and another person mimics the barking of a dog in
the other. One side of her face in that case wears an amused expression,
while the other shows signs of alarm.
Dr. Charcot thus describes a curious experiment: "A portrait is
suggested to a subject as existing on a blank card, which is then mixed
with a dozen others; to all appearance they are similar cards. The
subject, being awakened, is requested to look over the packet, and does
so without knowing the reason of the request, but when he perceives the
card on which the portrait was suggested, he at once recognizes the
imaginary portrait. It is probable that some insignificant mark has,
owing to his visual hyperacuity, fixed the image in the subject's
brain."
FASCINATION.
Says a recent French writer: "Dr. Bremand, a naval doctor, has obtained
in men supposed to be perfectly healthy a new condition, which he calls
fascination. The inventor considers that this is hypnotism in its
mildest form, which, after repeated experiments, might become catalepsy.
The subject fascinated by Dr. Bremaud--fascination being induced by the
contemplation of a bright spot--falls into a state of stupor. He follows
the operator and servilely imitates his movements, gestures and words;
he obeys suggestions, and a stimulation of the nerves induces
contraction, but the cataleptic pliability does not exist."
A noted public hypnotizer in Paris some years ago produced fascination
in the following manner: He would cause the subject to lean on his
hands, thus fatiguing the muscles. The excitement produced by the
concentrated gaze of a large audience also assisted in weakening the
nervous resistance. At last the operator would suddenly call out: "Look
at me!" The subject would look up and gaze steadily into the operator's
eyes, who would stare steadily back with round, glaring eyes, and in
most cases subdue his victim.
CHAPTER IV.
How the Subject Feels Under Hypnotization.--Dr. Cooper's
Experience.--Effect of Music.--Dr. Alfred Marthieu's Experiments.
The sensations produced during a state of hypnosis are very interesting.
As may be supposed, they differ greatly in different persons. One of the
most interesting accounts ever given is that of Dr. James R. Cocke, a
hypnotist himself, who submitted to being operated upon by a
professional magnetizer. He was at that time a firm believer in the
theory of personal magnetism (a delusion from which he afterward
escaped).
On the occasion which he describes, the operator commanded him to close
his eyes and told him he could not open them, but he did open them at
once. Again he told him to close the eyes, and at the same time he
gently stroked his head and face and eyelids with his hand. Dr. Cocke
fancied he felt a tingling sensation in his forehead and eyes, which he
supposed came from the hand of the operator. (Afterward he came to
believe that this sensation was purely imaginary on his part.)
Then he says: "A sensation akin to fear came over me. The operator said:
'You are going to sleep, you are getting sleepy. You cannot open your
eyes.' I was conscious that my heart was beating rapidly, and I felt a
sensation of terror. He continued to tell me I was going to sleep, and
could not open my eves. He then made passes over my head, down over my
hands and body, but did not touch me. He then said to me, 'You cannot
open your eyes.' The motor apparatus of my lids would not seemingly
respond to my will, yet I was conscious that while one part of my mind
wanted to open my eyes, another part did not want to, so I was in a
paradoxical state. I believed that I could open my eyes, and yet could
not. The feeling of not wishing to open my eyes was not based upon any
desire to please the operator. I had no personal interest in him in any
way, but, be it understood, I firmly believed in his power to control
me. He continued to suggest to me that I was going to sleep, and the
suggestion of terror previously mentioned continued to increase."
The next step was to put the doctor's hand over his head, and tell him
he could not put it down. Then he stroked the arm and said it was
growing numb. He said: "You have no feeling in it, have you?" Dr. Cocke
goes on: "I said 'No,' and I knew that I said 'No,' yet I knew that I
had a feeling in it." The operator went on, pricking the arm with a pin,
and though Dr. Cocke felt the pain he said he did not feel it, and at
the same time the sensation of terror increased. "I was not conscious of
my body at all," he says further on, "but I was painfully conscious of
the two contradictory elements within me. I knew that my body existed,
but could not prove it to myself. I knew that the statements made by the
operator were in a measure untrue. I obeyed them voluntarily and
involuntarily. This is the last remembrance that I have of that hypnotic
experience."
After this, however, the operator caused the doctor to do a number of
things which he learned of from his friends after the performance was
over. "It seemed to me that the hypnotist commanded me to awake as soon
as I dropped my arm," and yet ten minutes of unconsciousness had passed.
On a subsequent occasion Dr. Cocke, who was blind, was put into a deep
hypnotic sleep by fixing his mind on the number 26 and holding up his
hand. This time he experienced a still greater degree of terror, and
incidentally learned that he could hypnotize himself. The matter of
self-hypnotism we shall consider in another chapter.
In this connection we find great interest in an article in the Medical
News, July 28, 1894, by Dr. Alfred Warthin, of Ann Arbor, Mich., in
which he describes the effects of music upon hypnotic subjects. While in
Vienna he took occasion to observe closely the enthusiastic musical
devotees as they sat in the audience at the performance of one of
Wagner's operas. He believed they were in a condition of self-induced
hypnotism, in which their subjective faculties were so exalted as to
supersede their objective perceptions. Music was no longer to them a
succession of pleasing sounds, but the embodiment of a drama in which
they became so wrapped up that they forgot all about the mechanical and
external features of the music and lived completely in a fairy world of
dream.
This observation suggested to him an interesting series of experiments.
His first subject was easily hypnotized, and of an emotional nature.
Wagner's "Ride of Walkure" was played from the piano score. The pulse of
the subject became more rapid and at first of higher tension, increasing
from a normal rate of 60 beats a minute to 120. Then, as the music
progressed, the tension diminished. The respiration increased from 18 to
30 per minute. Great excitement in the subject was evident. His whole
body was thrown into motion, his legs were drawn up, his arms tossed
into the air, and a profuse sweat appeared. When the subject had been
awakened, he said that he did not remember the music as music, but had
an impression of intense, excitement, brought on by "riding furiously
through the air." The state of mind brought up before him in the most
realistic and vivid manner possible the picture of the ride of Tam
O'Shanter, which he had seen years before. The picture soon became real
to him, and he found himself taking part in a wild chase, not as witch,
devil, or Tam even; but in some way his consciousness was spread through
every part of the scene, being of it, and yet playing the part of
spectator, as is often the case in dreams.
Dr. Warthin tried the same experiment again, this time on a young man
who was not so emotional, and was hypnotized with much more difficulty.
This subject did not pass into such a deep state of hypnotism, but the
result was practically the same. The pulse rate rose from 70 to 120. The
sensation remembered was that of riding furiously through the air.
The experiment was repeated on other subjects, in all cases with the
same result. Only one knew that the music was the "Ride of Walkure." "To
him it always expressed the pictured wild ride of the daughters of
Wotan, the subject taking part in the ride." It was noticeable in each
case that the same music played to them in the waking state produced no
special impression. Here is incontestable evidence that in the hypnotic
state the perception of the special senses is enormously heightened.
A slow movement was tried (the Valhalla motif). At first it seemed to
produce the opposite effect, for the pulse was lowered. Later it rose to
a rate double the normal, and the tension was diminished. The impression
described by the subject afterward was a feeling of "lofty grandeur and
calmness." A mountain climbing experience of years before was recalled,
and the subject seemed to contemplate a landscape of "lofty grandeur." A
different sort of music was played (the intense and ghastly scene in
which Brunhilde appears to summon Sigmund to Valhalla). Immediately a
marked change took place in the pulse. It became slow and irregular, and
very small. The respiration decreased almost to gasping, the face grew
pale, and a cold perspiration broke out.
Readers who are especially interested in this subject will find
descriptions of many other interesting experiments in the same article.
Dr. Cocke describes a peculiar trick he played upon the sight of a
subject. Says he: "I once hypnotized a man and made him read all of his
a's as w's, his u's as v's, and his b's as x's. I added suggestion after
suggestion so rapidly that it would have been impossible for him to have
remembered simply what I said and call the letters as I directed.
Stimulation was, in this case impossible, as I made him read fifteen or
twenty pages, he calling the letters as suggested each time they
occurred."
The extraordinary heightening of the sense perceptions has an important
bearing on the question of spiritualism and clairvoyance. If the powers
of the mind are so enormously increased, all that is required of a very
sensitive and easily hypnotized person is to hypnotize him or herself,
when he will be able to read thoughts and remember or perceive facts
hidden to the ordinary perception. In this connection the reader is
referred to the confession of Mrs. Piper, the famous medium of the
American branch of the Psychical Research Society. The confession will
be found printed in full at the close of this book.
CHAPTER V.
Self-Hypnotization.--How It may Be Done.--An Experience.--Accountable for
Children's Crusade.--Oriental Prophets Self-Hypnotized.
If self-hypnotism is possible (and it is true that a person can
deliberately hypnotize himself when he wishes to till he has become
accustomed to it and is expert in it, so to speak), it does away at a
stroke with the claims of all professional hypnotists and magnetic
healers that they have any peculiar power in themselves which they exert
over their fellows. One of these professionals gives an account in his
book of what he calls "The Wonderful Lock Method." He says that though
he is locked up in a separate room he can make the psychic power work
through the walls. All that he does is to put his subjects in the way of
hypnotizing themselves. He shows his inconsistency when he states that
under certain circumstances the hypnotizer is in danger of becoming
hypnotized himself. In this he makes no claim that the subject is using
any psychic power; but, of course, if the hypnotizer looks steadily into
the eyes of his subject, and the subject looks into his eyes, the steady
gaze on a bright object will produce hypnotism in one quite as readily
as in the other.
Hypnotism is an established scientific fact; but the claim that the
hypnotizer has any mysterious psychic power is the invariable mark of
the charlatan. Probably no scientific phenomenon was ever so grossly
prostituted to base ends as that of hypnotism. Later we shall see some
of the outrageous forms this charlatanism assumes, and how it extends to
the professional subjects as well as to the professional operators, till
those subjects even impose upon scientific men who ought to be proof
against such deception. Moreover, the possibility of self-hypnotization,
carefully concealed and called by another name, opens another great
field of humbug and charlatanism, of which the advertising columns of
the newspapers are constantly filled--namely, that of the clairvoyant and
medium. We may conceive how such a profession might become perfectly
legitimate and highly useful; but at present it seems as if any person
who went into it, however honest he might be at the start, soon began to
deceive himself as well as others, until he lost his power entirely to
distinguish between fact and imagination.
Before discussing the matter further, let us quote Dr. Cocke's
experiment in hypnotizing himself. It will be remembered that a
professional hypnotizer or magnetizer had hypnotized him by telling him
to fix his mind on the number twenty-six and holding up his hand. Says
the doctor:
"In my room that evening it occurred to me to try the same experiment. I
did so. I kept the number twenty-six in my mind. In a few minutes I felt
the sensation of terror, but in a different way. I was intensely cold.
My heart seemed to stand still. I had ringing in my ears. My hair seemed
to rise upon my scalp. I persisted in the effort, and the previously
mentioned noise in my ears grew louder and louder. The roar became
deafening. It crackled like a mighty fire. I was fearfully conscious of
myself. Having read vivid accounts of dreams, visions, etc., it occurred
to me that I would experience them. I felt in a vague way that there
were beings all about me but could not hear their voices. I felt as
though every muscle in my body was fixed and rigid. The roar in my ears
grew louder still, and I heard, above the roar, reports which sounded
like artillery and musketry. Then above the din of the noise a musical
chord. I seemed to be absorbed in this chord. I knew nothing else. The
world existed for me only in the tones of the mighty chord. Then I had a
sensation as though I were expanding. The sound in my ears died away,
and yet I was not conscious of silence. Then all consciousness was lost.
The next thing I experienced was a sensation of intense cold, and of
someone roughly shaking me. Then I heard the voice of my jolly landlord
calling me by name."
The landlord had found the doctor "as white as a ghost and as limp as a
rag," and thought he was dead. He says it took him ten minutes to arouse
the sleeper. During the time a physician had been summoned.
As to the causes of this condition as produced Dr. Cocke says: "I firmly
believed that something would happen when the attempt was made to
hypnotize me. Secondly, I wished to be hypnotized. These, together with
a vivid imagination and strained attention, brought on the states which
occurred."
It is interesting to compare the effects of hypnotization with those of
opium or other narcotic. Dr. Cocke asserts that there is a difference.
His descriptions of dreams bear a wonderful likeness to De Quincey's
dreams, such as those described in "The English Mail-Coach," "De
Profundis," and "The Confessions of an English Opium Eater," all of
which were presumably due to opium.
The causes which Dr. Cocke thinks produced the hypnotic condition in his
case, namely, belief, desire to be hypnotized, and strained attention,
united with a vivid imagination, are causes which are often found in
conjunction and produce effects which we may reasonably explain on the
theory of self-hypnotization.
For instance, the effects of an exciting religious revival are very like
those produced by Mesmer's operations in Paris. The subjects become
hysterical, and are ready to believe anything or do anything. By
prolonging the operation, a whole community becomes more or less
hypnotized. In all such cases, however, unusual excitement is commonly
followed by unusual lethargy. It is much like a wild spree of
intoxication--in fact, it is a sort of intoxication.
The same phenomena are probably accountable for many of the strange
records of history. The wonderful cures at Lourdes (of which we have
read in Zola's novel of that name) are no doubt the effect of
hypnotization by the priests. Some of the strange movements of whole
communities during the Crusades are to be explained either on the theory
of hypnotization or of contagion, and possibly these two things will
turn out to be much the same in fact. On no other ground can we explain
the so-called "Children's Crusade," in which over thirty thousand
children from Germany, from all classes of the community, tried to cross
the Alps in winter, and in their struggles were all lost or sold into
slavery without even reaching the Holy Land.
Again, hypnotism is accountable for many of the poet's dreams. Gazing
steadily at a bed of bright coals or a stream of running water will
invariably throw a sensitive subject into a hypnotic sleep that will
last sometimes for several hours. Dr. Cocke says that he has
experimented in this direction with patients of his. Says he: "They have
the ability to resist the state or to bring it at will. Many of them
describe beautiful scenes from nature, or some mighty cathedral with its
lofty dome, or the faces of imaginary beings, beautiful or demoniacal,
according to the will and temper of the subject."
Perhaps the most wonderful example of self-hypnotism which we have in
history is that of the mystic Swedenborg, who saw, such strange things
in his visions, and at last came to believe in them as real.
The same explanation may be given of the manifestations of Oriental
prophets--for in the Orient hypnotism is much easier and more
systematically developed than with us of the West. The performances of
the dervishes, and also of the fakirs, who wound themselves and perform
many wonderful feats which would be difficult for an ordinary person,
are no doubt in part feats of hypnotism.
While in a condition of auto-hypnotization a person may imagine that he
is some other personality. Says Dr. Cocke: "A curious thing about those
self-hypnotized subjects is that they carry out perfectly their own
ideals of the personality with whom they believe themselves to be
possessed. If their own ideals of the part they are playing are
imperfect, their impersonations are ridiculous in the extreme. One man I
remember believed himself to be controlled by the spirit of Charles
Sumner. Being uneducated, he used the most wretched English, and his
language was utterly devoid of sense. While, on the other hand, a very
intelligent lady who believed herself to be controlled by the spirit of
Charlotte Cushman personated the part very well."
Dr. Cooke says of himself: "I can hypnotize myself to such an extent
that I will become wholly unconscious of events taking place around me,
and a long interval of time, say from one-half to two hours, will be a
complete blank. During this condition of auto-hypnotization I will obey
suggestions made to me by another, talking rationally, and not knowing
any event that has occurred after the condition has passed off."
CHAPTER VI.
Simulation.--Deception in Hypnotism Very Common.--Examples of Neuropathic
Deceit.--Detecting Simulation.--Professional Subjects.--How Dr. Luys of the
Charity Hospital at Paris Was Deceived.--Impossibility of Detecting
Deception in All Cases.--Confessions of a Professional Hypnotic Subject.
It has already been remarked that hypnotism and hysteria are conditions
very nearly allied, and that hysterical neuropathic individuals make the
best hypnotic subjects. Now persons of this character are in most cases
morally as well as physically degenerate, and it is a curious fact that
deception seems to be an inherent element in nearly all such characters.
Expert doctors have been thoroughly deceived. And again, persons who
have been trying to expose frauds have also been deceived by the
positive statements of such persons that they were deceiving the doctors
when they were not. A diseased vanity seems to operate in such cases and
the subjects take any method which promises for the time being to bring
them into prominence. Merely to attract attention is a mania with some
people.
There is also something about the study of hypnotism, and similar
subjects in which delusions constitute half the existence, that seems to
destroy the faculty for distinguishing between truth and delusion.
Undoubtedly we must look on such manifestations as a species of
insanity.
There is also a point at which the unconscious deceiver, for the sake of
gain, passes into the conscious deceiver. At the close of this chapter
we will give some cases illustrating the fact that persons may learn by
practice to do seemingly impossible things, such as holding themselves
perfectly rigid (as in the cataleptic state) while their head rests on
one chair and their heels on another, and a heavy person sits upon them.
First, let us cite a few cases of what may be called neuropathic
deceit--a kind of insanity which shows itself in deceiving. The
newspapers record similar cases from time to time. The first two of the
following are quoted by Dr. Courmelles from the French courts, etc.
1. The Comtesse de W---- accused her maid of having attempted to poison
her. The case was a celebrated one, and the court-room was thronged with
women who sympathized with the supposed victim. The maid was condemned
to death; but a second trial was granted, at which it was conclusively
proved that the Comtesse had herself bound herself on her bed, and had
herself poured out the poison which was found still blackening her
breast and lips.
2. In 1886 a man called Ulysse broke into the shop of a second-hand
dealer, facing his own house in Paris, and there began deliberately to
take away the goods, just as if he were removing his own furniture. This
he did without hurrying himself in any way, and transported the property
to his own premises. Being caught in the very act of the theft, he
seemed at first to be flurried and bewildered. When arrested and taken
to the lock-up, he seemed to be in a state of abstraction; when spoken
to he made no reply, seemed ready to fall asleep, and when brought
before the examining magistrate actually fell asleep. Dr. Garnier, the
medical man attached to the infirmary of the police establishment, had
no doubt of his irresponsibility and he was released from custody.
3. While engaged as police-court reporter for a Boston newspaper, the
present writer saw a number of strange cases of the same kind. One was
that of a quiet, refined, well educated lady, who was brought in for
shop-lifting. Though her husband was well to do, and she did not sell or
even use the things she took, she had made a regular business of
stealing whenever she could. She had begun it about seven months before
by taking a lace handkerchief, which she slipped under her shawl: Soon
after she accomplished another theft. "I felt so encouraged," she said,
"that I got a large bag, which I fastened under my dress, and into this
I slipped whatever I could take when the clerks were not looking. I do
not know what made me do it. My success seemed to lead me on."
Other cases of kleptomania could easily be cited.
"Simulation," say Messieurs Binet and Fere, "which is already a
stumbling block in the study of hysterical cases, becomes far more
formidable in such studies as we are now occupied with. It is only when
he has to deal with physical phenomena that the operator feels himself
on firm ground."
Yet even here we can by no means feel certain. Physicians have invented
various ingenious pieces of apparatus for testing the circulation and
other physiological conditions; but even these things are not sure
tests. The writer knows of the case of a man who has such control over
his heart and lungs that he can actually throw himself into a profound
sleep in which the breathing is so absolutely stopped for an hour that a
mirror is not moistened in the least by the breath, nor can the pulses
be felt. To all intents and purposes the man appears to be dead; but in
due time he comes to life again, apparently no whit the worse for his
experiment.
If an ordinary person were asked to hold out his arms at full length for
five minutes he would soon become exhausted, his breathing would
quicken, his pulse-rate increase. It might be supposed that if these
conditions did not follow the subject was in a hypnotic trance; but it
is well known that persons may easily train themselves to hold out the
arms for any length of time without increasing the respiration by one
breath or raising the pulse rate at all. We all remember Montaigne's
famous illustration in which he said that if a woman began by carrying a
calf about every day she would still be able to carry it when it became
an ox.
In the Paris hospitals, where the greater number of regular scientific
experiments have been conducted, it is found that "trained subjects" are
required for all of the more difficult demonstrations. That some of
these famous scientists have been deceived, there is no doubt. They know
it themselves. A case which will serve as an illustration is that of Dr.
Luys, some of whose operations were "exposed" by Dr. Ernest Hart, an
English student of hypnotism of a skeptical turn of mind. One of Dr.
Luys's pupils in a book he has published makes the following statement,
which helps to explain the circumstances which we will give a little
later. Says he:
"We know that many hospital patients who are subjected to the higher or
greater treatment of hypnotism are of very doubtful reputations; we know
also the effects of a temperament which in them is peculiarly addicted
to simulation, and which is exaggerated by the vicinity of maladies
similar to their own. To judge of this, it is necessary to have seen
them encourage each other in simulation, rehearsing among themselves, or
even before the medical students of the establishment, the experiments
to which they have been subjected; and going through their different
contortions and attitudes to exercise themselves in them. And then,
again, in the present day, has not the designation of an 'hypnotical
subject' become almost a social position? To be fed, to be paid,
admired, exhibited in public, run after, and all the rest of it--all this
is enough to make the most impartial looker-on skeptical. But is it
enough to enable us to produce an a priori negation? Certainly not; but
it is sufficient to justify legitimate doubt. And when we come to moral
phenomena, where we have to put faith in the subject, the difficulty
becomes still greater. Supposing suggestion and hallucination to be
granted, can they be demonstrated? Can we by plunging the subject in
hypnotical sleep, feel sure of what he may affirm? That is impossible,
for simulation and somnambulism are not reciprocally exclusive terms,
and Monsieur Pitres has established the fact that a subject who sleeps
may still simulate." Messieurs Binet and Fere in their book speak of
"the honest Hublier, whom his somnambulist Emelie cheated for four years
consecutively."
Let us now quote Mr. Hart's investigations.
Dr. Luys is an often quoted authority on hypnotism in Paris, and is at
the head of what is called the Charity Hospital school of hypnotical
experiments. In 1892 he announced some startling results, in which some
people still have faith (more or less). What he was supposed to
accomplish was stated thus in the London Pall Mall Gazette, issue of
December 2: "Dr. Luys then showed us how a similar artificial state of
suffering could be created without suggestion--in fact, by the mere
proximity of certain substances. A pinch of coal dust, for example,
corked and sealed in a small phial and placed by the side of the neck of
a hypnotized person, produces symptoms of suffocation by smoke; a tube
of distilled water, similarly placed, provokes signs of incipient
hydrophobia; while another very simple concoction put in contact with
the flesh brings on symptoms of suffocation by drowning."
Signs of drunkenness were said to be caused by a small corked bottle of
brandy, and the nature of a cat by a corked bottle of valerian. Patients
also saw beautiful blue flames about the north pole of a magnet and
distasteful red flames about the south pole; while by means of a magnet
it was said that the symptoms of illness of a sick patient might be
transferred to a well person also in the hypnotic state, but of course
on awaking the well person at once threw off sickness that had been
transferred, but the sick person was permanently relieved. These
experiments are cited in some recent books on hypnotism, apparently with
faith. The following counter experiments will therefore be read with
interest.
Dr. Hart gives a full account of his investigations in the Nineteenth
Century. Dr. Luys gave Dr. Hart some demonstrations, which the latter
describes as follows: "A tube containing ten drachms of cognac were
placed at a certain point on the subject's neck, which Dr. Luys said was
the seat of the great nerve plexuses. The effect on Marguerite was very
rapid and marked; she began to move her lips and to swallow; the
expression of her face changed, and she asked, 'What have you been
giving me to drink? I am quite giddy.' At first she had a stupid and
troubled look; then she began to get gay. 'I am ashamed of myself,' she
said; 'I feel quite tipsy,' and after passing through some of the phases
of lively inebriety she began to fall from the chair, and was with
difficulty prevented from sprawling on the floor. She was uncomfortable,
and seemed on the point of vomiting, but this was stopped, and she was
calmed."
Another patient gave all the signs of imagining himself transformed into
a cat when a small corked bottle of valerian was placed on his neck.
In the presence of a number of distinguished doctors in Paris, Dr. Hart
tried a series of experiments in which by his conversation he gave the
patient no clue to exactly what drug he was using, in order that if the
patient was simulating he would not know what to simulate. Marguerite
was the subject of several of these experiments, one of which is
described as follows:
"I took a tube which was supposed to contain alcohol, but which did
contain cherry laurel water. Marguerite immediately began, to use the
words of M. Sajous's note, to smile agreeably and then to laugh; she
became gay. 'It makes me laugh,' she said, and then, 'I'm not tipsy, I
want to sing,' and so on through the whole performance of a not
ungraceful giserie, which we stopped at that stage, for I was loth to
have the degrading performance of drunkenness carried to the extreme I
had seen her go through at the Charite. I now applied a tube of alcohol,
asking the assistant, however, to give me valerian, which no doubt this
profoundly hypnotized subject perfectly well heard, for she immediately
went through the whole cat performance. She spat, she scratched, she
mewed, she leapt about on all fours, and she was as thoroughly cat-like
as had been Dr. Luys's subjects."
Similar experiments as to the effect of magnets and electric currents
were tried. A note taken by Dr. Sajous runs thus: "She found the north
pole, notwithstanding there was no current, very pretty; she was as if
she were fascinated by it; she caressed the blue flames, and showed
every sign of delight. Then came the phenomena of attraction. She
followed the magnet with delight across the room, as though fascinated
by it; the bar was turned so as to present the other end or what would
be called, in the language of La Charite, the south pole. Then she fell
into an attitude, of repulsion and horror, with clenched fists, and as
it approached her she fell backward into the arms of M. Cremiere, and
was carried, still showing all the signs of terror and repulsion, back
to her chair. The bar was again turned until what should have been the
north pole was presented to her. She again resumed the same attitudes of
attraction, and tears bedewed her cheeks. 'Ah,' she said, 'it is blue,
the flame mounts,' and she rose from her seat, following the magnet
around the room. Similar but false phenomena were obtained in succession
with all the different forms of magnet and non-magnet; Marguerite was
never once right, but throughout her acting was perfect; she was utterly
unable at any time really to distinguish between a plain bar of iron,
demagnetized magnet or a horseshoe magnet carrying a full current and
one from which the current was wholly cut off."
Five different patients were tested in the same way, through a long
series of experiments, with the same results, a practical proof that Dr.
Luys had been totally deceived and his new and wonderful discoveries
amounted to nothing.
There is, however, another possible explanation, namely, telepathy, in a
real hypnotic condition. Even if Dr. Luys's experiments were genuine
this would be the rational explanation. They were a case of suggestion
of some sort, without doubt.
Nearly every book on hypnotism gives various rules for detecting
simulation of the hypnotic state. One of the commonest tests is that of
anaesthesia. A pin or pen-knife is stuck into a subject to see if he is
insensible to pain; but as we shall see in a latter chapter, this
insensibility also may be simulated, for by long training some persons
learn to control their facial expressions perfectly. We have already
seen that the pulse and respiration tests are not sufficient. Hypnotic
persons often flush slightly in the face; but it is true that there are
persons who can flush on any part of the body at will.
Mr. Ernest Hart had an article in the Century Magazine on "The Eternal
Gullible," in which he gives the confessions of a professional hypnotic
subject. This person, whom he calls L., he brought to his house, where
some experiments were tried in the presence of a number of doctors,
whose names are quoted. The quotation of a paragraph or two from Mr.
Hart's article will be of interest. Says he:
"The 'catalepsy business' had more artistic merit. So rigid did L. make
his muscles that he could be lifted in one piece like an Egyptian mummy.
He lay with his head on the back of one chair, and his heels on another,
and allowed a fairly heavy man to sit on his stomach; it seemed to me,
however, that he was here within a 'straw' or two of the limit of his
endurance. The 'blister trick,' spoken of by Truth as having deceived
some medical men, was done by rapidly biting and sucking the skin of the
wrist. L. did manage with some difficulty to raise a slight swelling,
but the marks of the teeth were plainly visible." (Possibly L. had made
his skin so tough by repeated biting that he could no longer raise the
blister!)
"One point in L.'s exhibition which was undoubtedly genuine was his
remarkable and stoical endurance of pain. He stood before us smiling and
open-eyed while he ran long needles into the fleshy part of his arms and
legs without flinching, and he allowed one of the gentlemen present to
pinch his skin in different parts with strong crenated pincers in a
manner which bruised it, and which to most people would have caused
intense pain. L. allowed no sign of suffering or discomfort to appear;
he did not set his teeth or wince; his pulse was not quickened, and the
pupil of his eye did not dilate as physiologists tell us it does when
pain passes a certain limit. It may be said that this merely shows that
in L. the limit of endurance was beyond the normal standard; or, in
other words, that his sensitiveness was less than that of the average
man. At any rate his performance in this respect was so remarkable that
some of the gentlemen present were fain to explain it by supposed
'post-hypnotic suggestion,' the theory apparently being that L. and his
comrades hypnotized one another, and thus made themselves insensible to
pain.
"As surgeons have reason to know, persons vary widely in their
sensitiveness to pain. I have seen a man chat quietly with
bystanders while his carotid artery was being tied without the use of
chloroform. During the Russo-Turkish war wounded Turks often astonished
English doctors by undergoing the most formidable amputations with no
other anaesthetic than a cigarette. Hysterical women will inflict very
severe pain on themselves--merely for wantonness or in order to excite
sympathy. The fakirs who allow themselves to be hung up by hooks beneath
their shoulder-blades seem to think little of it and, as a matter of
fact, I believe are not much inconvenienced by the process."
The fact is, the amateur can always be deceived, and there are no
special tests that can be relied on. If a person is well accustomed to
hypnotic manifestations, and also a good judge of human nature, and will
keep constantly on guard, using every precaution to avoid deception, it
is altogether likely that it can be entirely obviated. But one must use
his good judgment in every possible way. In the case of fresh subjects,
or persons well known, of course there is little possibility of
deception. And the fact that deception exists does not in any way
invalidate the truth of hypnotism as a scientific phenomenon. We cite it
merely as one of the physiological peculiarities connected with the
mental condition of which it is a manifestation. The fact that a
tendency to deception exists is interesting in itself, and may have an
influence upon our judgment of our fellow beings. There is, to be sure,
a tendency on the part of scientific writers to find lunatics instead of
criminals; but knowledge of the well demonstrated fact that many
criminals are insane helps to make us charitable.
CHAPTER VII.
Criminal Suggestion.--Laboratory Crimes.--Dr. Cocke's Experiments Showing
Criminal Suggestion Is not Possible.--Dr. William James' Theory.--A Bad
Man Cannot Be Made Good, Why Expect to Make a Good Man Bad?
One of the most interesting phases of hypnotism is that of post-hypnotic
suggestion, to which reference has already been made. It is true that a
suggestion made during the hypnotic condition as to what a person will
do after coming out of the hypnotic sleep may be carried out. A certain
professional hypnotizer claims that once he has hypnotized a person he
can keep that person forever after under his influence by means of
post-hypnotic suggestion. He says to him while in the hypnotic sleep:
"Whenever I look at you, or point at you, you will fall asleep. No one
can hypnotize you but me. Whenever I try to hypnotize you, you will fall
asleep." He says further: "Suggest to a subject while he is sound asleep
that in eight weeks he will mail you a letter with a blank piece of note
paper inside, and during the intervening period you may yourself forget
the occurrence, but in exactly eight weeks he will carry out the
suggestion. Suggestions of this nature are always carried out,
especially when the suggestion is to take effect on some certain day or
date named. Suggest to a subject that in ninety days from a given date
he will come to your house with his coat on inside out, and he will most
certainly do so."
The same writer also definitely claims that he can hypnotize people
against their wills. If this were true, what a terrible power would a
shrewd, evil-minded criminal have to compel the execution of any of his
plans! We hope to show that it is not true; but we must admit that many
scientific men have tried experiments which they believe demonstrate
beyond a doubt that criminal use can be and is made of hypnotic
influence. If it were possible to make a person follow out any line of
conduct while actually under hypnotic influence it would be bad enough;
but the use of posthypnotic suggestion opens a yet more far-reaching and
dangerous avenue.
Among the most definite claims of the evil deeds that may be compelled
during hypnotic sleep is that of Dr. Luys, whom we have already seen as
being himself deceived by professional hypnotic subjects. Says he: "You
cannot only oblige this defenseless being, who is incapable of opposing
the slightest resistance, to give from hand to hand anything you may
choose, but you can also make him sign a promise, draw up a bill of
exchange, or any other kind of agreement. You may make him write an
holographic will (which according to French law would be valid), which
he will hand over to you, and of which he will never know the existence.
He is ready to fulfill the minutest legal formalities, and will do so
with a calm, serene and natural manner calculated to deceive the most
expert law officers. These somnambulists will not hesitate either, you
may be sure, to make a denunciation, or to bear false witness; they are,
I repeat, the passive instruments of your will. For instance, take E.
She will at my bidding write out and sign a donation of forty pounds in
my favor. In a criminal point of view the subject under certain
suggestions will make false denunciations, accuse this or that person,
and maintain with the greatest assurance that he has assisted at an
imaginary crime. I will recall to your mind those scenes of fictitious
assassination, which have exhibited before you. I was careful to place
in the subject's hands a piece of paper instead of a dagger or a
revolver; but it is evident, that if they had held veritable murderous
instruments, the scene might have had a tragic ending."
Many experiments along this line have been tried, such as suggesting the
theft of a watch or a spoon, which afterward was actually carried out.
It may be said at once that "these laboratory crimes" are in most cases
successful: A person who has nothing will give away any amount if told
to do so; but quite different is the case of a wealthy merchant who
really has money to sign away.
Dr. Cocke describes one or two experiments of his own which have an
important bearing on the question of criminal suggestion. Says he: "A
girl who was hypnotized deeply was given a glass of water and was told
that it was a lighted lamp. A broomstick was placed across the room and
she was told that it was a man who intended to injure her. I suggested
to her that she throw the glass of water (she supposing it was a lighted
lamp) at the broomstick, her enemy, and she immediately threw it with
much violence. Then a man was placed across the room, and she was given
instead of a glass of water a lighted lamp. I told her that the lamp was
a glass of water, and that the man across the room was her brother. It
was suggested to her that his clothing was on fire and she was commanded
to extinguish the fire by throwing the lighted lamp at the individual,
she having been told, as was previously mentioned, that it was a glass
of water. Without her knowledge a person was placed behind her for the
purpose of quickly checking her movements, if desired. I then commanded
her to throw the lamp at the man. She raised the lamp, hesitated,
wavered, and then became very hysterical, laughing and crying
alternately. This condition was so profound that she came very near
dropping the lamp. Immediately after she was quieted I made a number of
tests to prove that she was deeply hypnotized. Standing in front of her
I gave her a piece of card-board, telling her that it was a dagger, and
commanded her to stab me. She immediately struck at me with the piece of
card-board. I then gave her an open pocketknife and commanded her to
strike at me with it. Again she raised it to execute my command, again
hesitated, and had another hysterical attack. I have tried similar
experiments with thirty or forty people with similar results. Some of
them would have injured themselves severely, I am convinced, at command,
but to what extent I of course cannot say. That they could have been
induced to harm others, or to set fire to houses, etc., I do not
believe. I say this after very careful reading and a large amount of
experimentation."
Dr. Cocke also declares his belief that no person can be hypnotized
against his will by a person who is repugnant to him.
The facts in the case are probably those that might be indicated by a
common-sense consideration of the conditions. If a person is weak-minded
and susceptible to temptation, to theft, for instance, no doubt a
familiar acquaintance of a similar character might hypnotize that person
and cause him to commit the crime to which his moral nature is by no
means averse. If, on the other hand, the personality of the hypnotizer
and the crime itself are repugnant to the hypnotic subject, he will
absolutely refuse to do as he is bidden, even while in the deepest
hypnotic sleep. On this point nearly all authorities agree.
Again, there is absolutely no well authenticated case of crime committed
by a person under hypnotic influence. There have been several cases
reported, and one woman in Paris who aided in a murder was released on
her plea of irresponsibility because she had been hypnotized. In none of
these cases, however, was there any really satisfactory evidence that
hypnotism existed. In all the cases reported there seemed to be no doubt
of the weak character and predisposition to crime. In another class of
cases, namely those of criminal assault upon girls and women, the only
evidence ever adduced that the injured person was hypnotized was the
statement of that person, which cannot really be called evidence at all.
The fact is, a weak character can be tempted and brought under virtual
control much more easily by ordinary means than by hypnotism. The man
who "overpersuades" a business man to endorse a note uses no hypnotic
influence. He is merely making a clever play upon the man's vanity,
egotism, or good nature.
A profound study of the hypnotic state, such as has been made by Prof.
William James, of Harvard College, the great authority on psychical
phenomena and president of the Psychic Research Society, leads to the
conviction that in the hypnotic sleep the will is only in abeyance,
as it is in natural slumber or in sleepwalking, and any unusual or
especially exciting occurrence, especially anything that runs against
the grain of the nature, reawakens that will, and it soon becomes
as active as ever. This is ten times more true in the matter of
post-hypnotic suggestion, which is very much weaker than suggestion
that takes effect during the actual hypnotic sleep. We shall see,
furthermore, that while acting under a delusion at the suggestion of the
operator, the patient is really conscious all the time of the real facts
in the case--indeed, much more keenly so, oftentimes, than the operator
himself. For instance, if a line is drawn on a sheet of paper and the
subject is told there is no line, he will maintain there is no line; but
he has to see it in order to ignore it. Moreover, persons trained to
obey, instinctively do obey even in their waking state. It requires a
special faculty to resist obedience, even during our ordinary waking
condition. Says a recent writer: "It is certain that we are naturally
inclined to obey, conflicts and resistance are the characteristics of
some rare individuals; but between admitting this and saying that we are
doomed to obey--even the least of us--lies a gulf." The same writer says
further: "Hypnotic suggestion is an order given for a few seconds, at
most a few minutes, to an individual in a state of induced sleep. The
suggestion may be repeated; but it is absolutely powerless to transform
a criminal into an honest man, or vice versa." Here is an excellent
argument. If it is possible to make criminals it should be quite as easy
to make honest men. It is true that the weak are sometimes helped for
good; but there is no case on record in which a person who really wished
to be bad was ever made good; and the history of hypnotism is full of
attempts in that direction. A good illustration is an experiment tried
by Colonel de Rochas:
"An excellent subject * * * had been left alone for a few minutes in an
apartment, and had stolen a valuable article. After he had left, the
theft was discovered. A few days after it was suggested to the subject,
while asleep, that he should restore the stolen object; the command was
energetically and imperatively reiterated, but in vain. The theft had
been committed by the subject, who had sold the article to an old
curiosity dealer, as it was eventually found on information received
from a third party. Yet this subject would execute all the imaginary
crimes he was ordered."
As to the value of the so-called "laboratory crimes," the statement of
Dr. Courmelles is of interest: "I have heard a subject say," he states,
"'If I were ordered to throw myself out of the window I should do it, so
certain am I either that there would be somebody under the window to
catch me or that I should be stopped in time. The experimentalist's own
interests and the consequences of such an act are a sure guarantee.'"
CHAPTER VIII.
Dangers in Being Hypnotized.--Condemnation of Public Performances.--A.
Common Sense View.--Evidence Furnished by Lafontaine.--By Dr.
Courmelles.--By. Dr. Hart.--By Dr. Cocke.--No Danger in Hypnotism if
Rightly Used by Physicians or Scientists.
Having considered the dangers to society through criminal hypnotic
suggestion, let us now consider what dangers there may be to the
individual who is hypnotized.
Before citing evidence, let us consider the subject from a rational
point of view. Several things have already been established. We know
that hypnotism is akin to hysteria and other forms of insanity--it is, in
short, a kind of experimental insanity. Really good hypnotic subjects
have not a perfect mental balance. We have also seen that repetition of
the process increases the susceptibility, and in some cases persons
frequently hypnotized are thrown into the hypnotic state by very slight
physical agencies, such as looking at a bright doorknob. Furthermore, we
know that the hypnotic patient is in a very sensitive condition, easily
impressed. Moreover, it is well known that exertions required of
hypnotic subjects are nervously very exhausting, so much so that
headache frequently follows.
From these facts any reasonable person may make a few clear deductions.
First, repeated strain of excitement in hypnotic seances will wear out
the constitution just as certainly as repeated strain of excitement in
social life, or the like, which, as we know, frequently produces nervous
exhaustion. Second, it is always dangerous to submit oneself to the
influence of an inferior or untrustworthy person. This is just as true
in hypnotism as it is in the moral realm. Bad companions corrupt. And
since the hypnotic subject is in a condition especially susceptible, a
little association of this kind, a little submission to the inferior or
immoral, will produce correspondingly more detrimental consequences.
Third, since hypnotism is an abnormal condition, just as drunkenness is,
one should not allow a public hypnotizer to experiment upon one and make
one do ridiculous things merely for amusement, any more than one would
allow a really insane person to be exhibited for money; or than one
would allow himself to be made drunk, merely that by his absurd antics
he might amuse somebody. It takes little reflection to convince any one
that hypnotism for amusement, either on the public stage or in the home,
is highly obnoxious, even if it is not highly dangerous. If the
hypnotizer is an honest man, and a man of character, little injury may
follow. But we can never know that, and the risk of getting into bad
hands should prevent every one from submitting to influence at all. The
fact is, however, that we should strongly doubt the good character of
any one who hypnotizes for amusement, regarding him in the same light as
we would one who intoxicated people on the stage for amusement, or gave
them chloroform, or went about with a troup of insane people that he
might exhibit their idiosyncrasies. Honest, right-minded people do not
do those things.
At the same time, there is nothing wiser that a man can do than to
submit himself fully to a stronger and wiser nature than his own. A
physician in whom you have confidence may do a thousand times more for
you by hypnotism than by the use of drugs. It is a safe rule to place
hypnotism in exactly the same category as drugs. Rightly used, drugs are
invaluable; wrongly used, they become the instruments of the murderer.
At all times should they be used with great caution. The same is true of
hypnotism.
Now let us cite some evidence. Lafontaine, a professional hypnotist,
gives some interesting facts. He says that public hypnotic
entertainments usually induce a great many of the audience to become
amateur hypnotists, and these experiments may cause suffocation. Fear
often results in congestion, or a rush of blood to the brain. "If the
digestion is not completed, more especially if the repast has been more
abundant than usual, congestion may be produced and death be
instantaneous. The most violent convulsions may result from too complete
magnetization of the brain. A convulsive movement may be so powerful
that the body will suddenly describe a circle, the head touching the
heels and seem to adhere to them. In this latter case there is torpor
without sleep. Sometimes it has been impossible to awake the subject."
A waiter at Nantes, who was magnetized by a commercial traveler,
remained for two days in a state of lethargy, and for three hours Dr.
Foure and numerous spectators were able to verify that "the extremities
were icy cold, the pulse no longer throbbed, the heart had no
pulsations, respiration had ceased, and there was not sufficient breath
to dim a glass held before the mouth. Moreover, the patient was stiff,
his eyes were dull and glassy." Nevertheless, Lafontaine was able to
recall this man to life.
Dr. Courmelles says: "Paralysis of one or more members, or of the
tongue, may follow the awakening. These are the effects of the
contractions of the internal muscles, due often to almost imperceptible
touches. The diaphragm--and therefore the respiration--may be stopped in
the same manner. Catalepsy and more especially lethargy, produce these
phenomena."
There are on record a number of cases of idiocy, madness, and epilepsy
caused by the unskillful provoking of hypnotic sleep. One case is
sufficiently interesting, for it is almost exactly similar to a case
that occurred at one of the American colleges. The subject was a young
professor at a boys' school. "One evening he was present at some public
experiments that were being performed in a tavern; he was in no way
upset at the sight, but the next day one of his pupils, looking at him
fixedly, sent him to sleep. The boys soon got into the habit of amusing
themselves by sending him to sleep, and the unhappy professor had to
leave the school, and place himself under the care of a doctor."
Dr. Ernest Hart gives an experience of his own which carries with it its
own warning. Says he:
"Staying at the well known country house in Kent of a distinguished
London banker, formerly member of Parliament for Greenwich, I had been
called upon to set to sleep, and to arrest a continuous barking cough
from which a young lady who was staying in the house was suffering, and
who, consequently, was a torment to herself and her friends. I thought
this a good opportunity for a control experiment, and I sat her down in
front of a lighted candle which I assured her that I had previously
mesmerized. Presently her cough ceased and she fell into a profound
sleep, which lasted until twelve o'clock the next day. When I returned
from shooting, I was informed that she was still asleep and could not be
awoke, and I had great difficulty in awaking her. That night there was a
large dinner party, and, unluckily, I sat opposite to her. Presently she
again became drowsy, and had to be led from the table, alleging, to my
confusion, that I was again mesmerizing her. So susceptible did she
become to my supposed mesmeric influence, which I vainly assured her, as
was the case, that I was very far from exercising or attempting to
exercise, that it was found expedient to take her up to London. I was
out riding in the afternoon that she left, and as we passed the railway
station, my host, who was riding with me, suggested that, as his friends
were just leaving by that train, he would like to alight and take leave
of them. I dismounted with him and went on to the platform, and avoided
any leave-taking; but unfortunately in walking up and down it seems that
I twice passed the window of the young lady's carriage. She was again
self-mesmerized, and fell into a sleep which lasted throughout the
journey, and recurred at intervals for some days afterward."
In commenting on this, Dr. Hart notes that in reality mesmerism is
self-produced, and the will of the operator, even when exercised directly
against it, has no effect if the subject believes that the will is being
operated in favor of it. Says he: "So long as the person operated on
believed that my will was that she should sleep, sleep followed. The
most energetic willing in my internal consciousness that there should be
no sleep, failed to prevent it, where the usual physical methods of
hypnotization, stillness, repose, a fixed gaze, or the verbal expression
of an order to sleep, were employed."
The dangers of hypnotism have been recognized by the law of every
civilized country except the United States, where alone public
performances are permitted.
Dr. Cocke says: "I have occasionally seen subjects who complained of
headache, vertigo, nausea, and other similar symptoms after having been
hypnotized, but these conditions were at a future hypnotic sitting
easily remedied by suggestion." Speaking of the use of hypnotism by
doctors under conditions of reasonable care, Dr. Cocke says further:
"There is one contraindication greater than all the rest. It applies
more to the physician than to the patient, more to the masses than to
any single individual. It is not confined to hypnotism alone; it has
blocked the wheels of human progress through the ages which have gone.
It is undue enthusiasm. It is the danger that certain individuals will
become so enamored with its charms that other equally valuable means of
cure will be ignored. Mental therapeutics has come to stay. It is yet in
its infancy and will grow, but, if it were possible to kill it, it would
be strangled by the fanaticism and prejudice of its devotees. The whole
field is fascinating and alluring. It promises so much that it is in
danger of being missed by the ignorant to such an extent that great harm
may result. This is true, not only of mental therapeutics and hypnotism,
but of every other blessing we possess. Hypnotism has nothing to fear
from the senseless skepticism and contempt of those who have no
knowledge of the subject." He adds pertinently enough: "While hypnotism
can be used in a greater or less degree by every one, it can only be
used intelligently by those who understand, not only hypnotism itself,
but disease as well."
Dr. Cocke is a firm believer that the right use of hypnotism by
intelligent persons does not weaken the will. Says he: "I do not believe
there is any danger whatever in this. I have no evidence (and I have
studied a large number of hypnotized subjects) that hypnotism will
render a subject less capable of exercising his will when he is relieved
from the hypnotic trance. I do not believe that it increases in any way
his susceptibility to ordinary suggestion."
However, in regard to the dangers of public performances by professional
hypnotizers, Dr. Cocke is equally positive. Says he:
"The dangers of public exhibitions, made ludicrous as they are by the
operators, should be condemned by all intelligent men and women, not
from the danger of hypnotism itself so much as from the liability of the
performers to disturb the mental poise of that large mass of ill-balanced
individuals which makes up no inconsiderable part of society." In
conclusion he says: "Patients have been injured by the misuse of
hypnotism. * * * This is true of every remedial agent ever employed for
the relief of man. Every article we eat, if wrongly prepared, if stale,
or if too much is taken, will be harmful. Every act, every duty of our
lives, may, if overdone, become an injury.
"Then, for the sake of clearness, let me state in closing that hypnotism
is dangerous only when it is misused, or when it is applied to that
large class of persons who are inherently unsound; especially if that
mysterious thing we call credulity predominates to a very great extent
over the reason and over other faculties of the mind."
CHAPTER IX.
Hypnotism in Medicine.--Anesthesia.--Restoring the Use of
Muscles.--Hallucination.--Bad Habits.
Anaesthesia--It is well known that hypnotism may be used to render
subjects insensible to pain. Thus numerous startling experiments are
performed in public, such as running hatpins through the cheeks or arms,
sewing the tongue to the ear, etc. The curious part of it is that the
insensibility may be confined to one spot only. Even persons who are not
wholly under hypnotic influence may have an arm or a leg, or any smaller
part rendered insensible by suggestion, so that no pain will be felt.
This has suggested the use of hypnotism in surgery in the place of
chloroform, ether, etc.
About the year 1860 some of the medical profession hoped that hypnotism
might come into general use for producing insensibility during surgical
operations. Dr. Guerineau in Paris reported the following successful
operation: The thigh of a patient was amputated. "After the operation,"
says the doctor, "I spoke to the patient and asked him how he felt. He
replied that he felt as if he were in heaven, and he seized hold of my
hand and kissed it. Turning to a medical student, he added: 'I was aware
of all that was being done to me, and the proof is that I knew my thigh
was cut off at the moment when you asked me if I felt any pain.'"
The writer who records this case continues: "This, however, was but a
transitory stage. It was soon recognized that a considerable time and a
good deal of preparation were necessary to induce the patients to sleep,
and medical men had recourse to a more rapid and certain method; that
is, chloroform. Thus the year 1860 saw the rise and fall of Braidism as
a means of surgical anaesthesia."
One of the most detailed cases of successful use of hypnotism as an
anaesthetic was presented to the Hypnotic Congress which met in 1889, by
Dr. Fort, professor of anatomy:
"On the 21st of October, 1887, a young Italian tradesman, aged twenty,
Jean M--. came to me and asked me to take off a wen he had on his
forehead, a little above the right eyebrow. The tumor was about the size
of a walnut.
"I was reluctant to make use of chloroform, although the patient wished
it, and I tried a short hypnotic experiment. Finding that my patient was
easily hypnotizable, I promised to extract the tumor in a painless
manner and without the use of chloroform.
"The next day I placed him in a chair and induced sleep, by a fixed
gaze, in less than a minute. Two Italian physicians, Drs. Triani and
Colombo who were present during the operation, declared that the subject
lost all sensibility and that his muscles retained all the different
positions in which they were put exactly as in the cataleptic state. The
patient saw nothing, felt nothing, and heard nothing, his brain
remaining in communication only with me.
"As soon as we had ascertained that the patient was completely under the
influence of the hypnotic slumber, I said to him: 'You will sleep for a
quarter of an hour,' knowing that the operation would not last longer
than that; and he remained seated and perfectly motionless.
"I made a transversal incision two and a half inches long and removed
the tumor, which I took out whole. I then pinched the blood vessels with
a pair of Dr. Pean's hemostatic pincers, washed the wound and applied a
dressing, without making a single ligature. The patient was still
sleeping. To maintain the dressing in proper position, I fastened a
bandage around his head. While going through the operation I said to the
patient, 'Lower your head, raise your head, turn to the right, to the
left,' etc., and he obeyed like an automaton. When everything was
finished, I said to him, 'Now, wake up.'
"He then awoke, declared that he had felt nothing and did not suffer,
and he went away on foot, as if nothing had been done to him.
"Five days after the dressing was removed and the cicatrix was found
completely healed."
Hypnotism has been tried extensively for painless dentistry, but with
many cases of failure, which got into the courts and thoroughly
discredited the attempt except in very special cases.
Restoring the Use of Muscles.--There is no doubt that hypnotism may be
extremely useful in curing many disorders that are essentially nervous,
especially such cases as those in which a patient has a fixed idea that
something is the matter with him when he is not really affected. Cases
of that description are often extremely obstinate, and entirely
unaffected by the ordinary therapeutic means. Ordinary doctors abandon
the cases in despair, but some person who understands "mental
suggestion" (for instance, the Christian Science doctors) easily effects
a cure. If the regular physician were a student of hypnotism he would
know how to manage cases like that.
By way of illustration, we quote reports of two cases, one successful
and one unsuccessful. The following is from a report by one of the
physicians of the Charity hospital in Paris:
"Gabrielle C---- became a patient of mine toward the end of 1886. She
entered the Charity hospital to be under treatment for some accident
arising from pulmonary congestion, and while there was suddenly seized
with violent attacks of hystero-epilepsy, which first contracted both
legs, and finally reduced them to complete immobility.
"She had been in this state of absolute immobility for seven months and
I had vainly tried every therapeutic remedy usual in such cases. My
intention was first to restore the general constitution of the subject,
who was greatly weakened by her protracted stay in bed, and then, at the
end of a certain time, to have recourse to hypnotism, and at the
opportune moment suggest to her the idea of walking.
"The patient was hypnotized every morning, and the first degree (that of
lethargy), then the cataleptic, and finally the somnambulistic states
were produced. After a certain period of somnambulism she began to move,
and unconsciously took a few steps across the ward. Soon after it was
suggested--the locomotor powers having recovered their physical
functions--that she should walk when awake. This she was able to do, and
in some weeks the cure was complete. In this case, however, we had the
ingenious idea of changing her personality at the moment when we induced
her to walk. The patient fancied she was somebody else, and as such, and
in this roundabout manner, we satisfactorily attained the object
proposed."
The following is Professor Delboeuf's account of Dr. Bernheim's mode
of suggestion at the hospital at Nancy. A robust old man of about
seventy-five years of age, paralyzed by sciatica, which caused him intense
pain, was brought in. "He could not put a foot to the ground without
screaming with pain. 'Lie down, my poor friend; I will soon relieve you.'
Dr. Bernheim says. 'That is impossible, doctor.' 'You will see.' 'Yes, we
shall see, but I tell you, we shall see nothing!' On hearing this answer
I thought suggestion will be of no use in this case. The old man looked
sullen and stubborn. Strangely enough, he soon went off to sleep, fell
into a state of catalepsy, and was insensible when pricked. But when
Monsieur Bernheim said to him, 'Now you can walk, he replied, 'No, I
cannot; you are telling me to do an impossible thing.' Although Monsieur
Bernheim failed in this instance, I could not but admire his skill.
After using every means of persuasion, insinuation and coaxing, he
suddenly took up an imperative tone, and in a sharp, abrupt voice that
did not admit a refusal, said: 'I tell you you can walk; get up.' 'Very
well,' replied the old follow; 'I must if you insist upon it.' And he
got out of bed. No sooner, however, had his foot touched the floor than
he screamed even louder than before. Monsieur Bernheim ordered him to
step out. 'You tell me to do what is impossible,' he again replied, and
he did not move. He had to be allowed to go to bed again, and the whole
time the experiment lasted he maintained an obstinate and ill-tempered
air."
These two cases give an admirable picture of the cases that can be and
those that cannot be cured by hypnotism, or any other method of mental
suggestion.
Hallucination.--"Hallucinations," says a medical authority, "are very
common among those who are partially insane. They occur as a result of
fever and frequently accompany delirium. They result from an
impoverished condition of the blood, especially if it is due to
starvation, indigestion, and the use of drugs like belladonna,
hyoscyarnus, stramonium, opium, chloral, cannabis indica, and many more
that might be mentioned."
Large numbers of cases of attempted cure by hypnotism, successful and
unsuccessful, might be quoted. There is no doubt that in the lighter
forms of partial insanity, hypnotism may help many patients, though not
all; but when the disease of the brain has gone farther, especially when
a well developed lesion exists in the brain, mental treatment is of
little avail, even if it can be practiced at all.
A few general remarks by Dr. Bernheim will be interesting. Says he:
"The mode of suggestion should be varied and adapted to the special
suggestibility of the subject. A simple word does not always suffice in
impressing the idea upon the mind. It is sometimes necessary to reason,
to prove, to convince; in some cases to affirm decidedly, in others to
insinuate gently; for in the condition of sleep, just as in the waking
condition, the moral individuality of each subject persists according to
his character, his inclinations, his impressionability, etc. Hypnosis
does not run all subjects into a uniform mold, and make pure and simple
automatons out of them, moved solely by the will of the hypnotist; it
increases cerebral docility; it makes the automatic activity
preponderate over the will. But the latter persists to a certain degree;
the subject thinks, reasons, discusses, accepts more readily than in the
waking condition, but does not always accept, especially in the light
degrees of sleep. In these cases we must know the patient's character,
his particular psychical condition, in order to make an impression upon
him."
Bad Habits.--The habit of the excessive use of alcoholic drinks,
morphine, tobacco, or the like, may often be decidedly helped by
hypnotism, if the patient wants to be helped. The method of operation is
simple. The operator hypnotizes the subject, and when he is in deep
sleep suggests that on awaking he will feel a deep disgust for the
article he is in the habit of taking, and if he takes it will be
affected by nausea, or other unpleasant symptoms. In most cases the
suggested result takes place, provided the subject can be hypnotized al
all; but unless the patient is himself anxious to break the habit fixed
upon him, the unpleasant effects soon wear off and he is as bad as ever.
Dr. Cocke treated a large number of cases, which he reports in detail in
his book on hypnotism. In a fair proportion of the cases he was
successful; in some cases completely so. In other cases he failed
entirely, owing to lack of moral stamina in the patient himself. His
conclusions seem to be that hypnotism may be made a very effective aid
to moral suasion, but after all, character is the chief force which
throws off such habits once they are fixed. The morphine habit is
usually the result of a doctor's prescription at some time, and it is
practiced more or less involuntarily. Such cases are often materially
helped by the proper suggestions.
The same is true of bad habits in children. The weak may be strengthened
by the stronger nature, and hypnotism may come in as an effective aid to
moral influence. Here again character is the deciding factor.
Dr. James R. Cocke devotes a considerable part of his book on
"Hypnotism" to the use of hypnotism in medical practice, and for further
interesting details the reader is referred to that able work.
CHAPTER X.
Hypnotism of Animals.--Snake Charming.
We are all familiar with the snake charmer, and the charming of birds by
snakes. How much hypnotism there is in these performances it would be
hard to say. It is probable that a bird is fascinated to some extent by
the steady gaze of a serpent's eyes, but fear will certainly paralyze a
bird as effectively as hypnotism.
Father Kircher was the first to try a familiar experiment with hens and
cocks. If you hold a hen's head with the beak upon a piece of board, and
then draw a chalk line from the beak to the edge of the board, the hen
when released will continue to hold her head in the same position for
some time, finally walking slowly away, as if roused from a stupor.
Farmers' wives often try a sort of hypnotic experiment on hens they wish
to transfer from one nest to another when sitting. They put the hen's
head under her wing and gently rock her to and fro till she apparently
goes to sleep, when she may be carried to another nest and will remain
there afterward.
Horses are frequently managed by a steady gaze into their eyes. Dr. Moll
states that a method of hypnotizing horses named after its inventor as
Balassiren has been introduced into Austria by law for the shoeing of
horses in the army.
We have all heard of the snake charmers of India, who make the snakes
imitate all their movements. Some suppose this is by hypnotization. It
may be the result of training, however. Certainly real charmers of wild
beasts usually end by being bitten or injured in some other way, which
would seem to show that the hypnotization does not always work, or else
it does not exist at all.
We have some fairly well known instances of hypnotism produced in
animals. Lafontaine, the magnetizer, some thirty years ago held public
exhibitions in Paris in which he reduced cats, dogs, squirrels and lions
to such complete insensibility that they felt neither pricks nor blows.
The Harvys or Psylles of Egypt impart to the ringed snake the appearance
of a stick by pressure on the head, which induces a species of tetanus,
says E. W. Lane.
The following description of serpent charming by the Aissouans of the
province of Sous, Morocco, will be of interest:
"The principal charmer began by whirling with astonishing rapidity in a
kind of frenzied dance around the wicker basket that contained the
serpents, which were covered by a goatskin. Suddenly he stopped, plunged
his naked arm into the basket, and drew out a cobra de capello, or else
a haje, a fearful reptile which is able to swell its head by spreading
out the scales which cover it, and which is thought to be Cleopatra's
asp, the serpent of Egypt. In Morocco it is known as the buska. The
charmer folded and unfolded the greenish-black viper, as if it were a
piece of muslin; he rolled it like a turban round his head, and
continued his dance while the serpent maintained its position, and
seemed to follow every movement and wish of the dancer.
"The buska was then placed on the ground, and raising itself straight on
end, in the attitude it assumes on desert roads to attract travelers,
began to sway from right to left, following the rhythm of the music. The
Aissoua, whirling more and more rapidly in constantly narrowing circles,
plunged his hand once more into the basket, and pulled out two of the
most venomous reptiles of the desert of Sous; serpents thicker than a
man's arm, two or three feet long, whose shining scales are spotted
black or yellow, and whose bite sends, as it were, a burning fire
through the veins. This reptile is probably the torrida dipsas of
antiquity. Europeans now call it the leffah.
"The two leffahs, more vigorous and less docile than the buska, lay half
curled up, their heads on one side, ready to dart forward, and followed
with glittering eyes the movements of the dancer. * * * Hindoo charmers
are still more wonderful; they juggle with a dozen different species of
reptiles at the same time, making them come and go, leap, dance, and lie
down at the sound of the charmer's whistle, like the gentlest of tame
animals. These serpents have never been known to bite their charmers."
It is well known that some animals, like the opossum, feign death when
caught. Whether this is to be compared to hypnotism is doubtful. Other
animals, called hibernating, sleep for months with no other food than
their fat, but this, again, can hardly be called hypnotism.
CHAPTER XI.
A Scientific Explanation of Hypnotism.--Dr. Hart's Theory.
In the introduction to this book the reader will find a summary of the
theories of hypnotism. There is no doubt that hypnotism is a complex
state which cannot be explained in an offhand way in a sentence or two.
There are, however, certain aspects of hypnotism which we may suppose
sufficiently explained by certain scientific writers on the subject.
First, what is the character of the delusions apparently created in the
mind of a person in the hypnotic condition by a simple word of mouth
statement, as when a physician says, "Now, I am going to cut your leg
off, but it will not hurt you in the least," and the patient suffers
nothing?
In answer to this question, Professor William James of Harvard College,
one of the leading authorities on the scientific aspects of psychical
phenomena in this country, reports the following experiments:
"Make a stroke on a paper or blackboard, and tell the subject it is not
there, and he will see nothing but the clean paper or board. Next, he
not looking, surround the original stroke with other strokes exactly
like it, and ask him what he sees. He will point out one by one the new
strokes and omit the original one every time, no matter how numerous the
next strokes may be, or in what order they are arranged. Similarly, if
the original single line, to which he is blind, be doubled by a prism of
sixteen degrees placed before one of his eyes (both being kept open), he
will say that he now sees one stroke, and point in the direction in
which lies the image seen through the prism.
"Another experiment proves that he must see it in order to ignore it.
Make a red cross, invisible to the hypnotic subject, on a sheet of white
paper, and yet cause him to look fixedly at a dot on the paper on or
near the red cross; he wills on transferring his eye to the blank sheet,
see a bluish-green after image of the cross. This proves that it has
impressed his sensibility. He has felt but not perceived it. He had
actually ignored it; refused to recognize it, as it were."
Dr. Ernest Hart, an English writer, in an article in the British Medical
Journal, gives a general explanation of the phenomena of hypnotism which
we may accept as true so far as it goes, but which is evidently
incomplete. He seems to minimize personal influence too much--that
personal influence which we all exert at various times, and which he
ignores, not because he would deny it, but because he fears lending
countenance to the magnetic fluid and other similar theories. Says he:
"We have arrived at the point at which it will be plain that the
condition produced in these cases, and known under a varied jargon
invented either to conceal ignorance, to express hypotheses, or to mask
the design of impressing the imagination and possibly prey upon the
pockets of a credulous and wonder-loving public--such names as mesmeric
condition, magnetic sleep, clairvoyance, electro-biology, animal
magnetism, faith trance, and many other aliases--such a condition, I say,
is always subjective. It is independent of passes or gestures; it has no
relation to any fluid emanating from the operator; it has no relation to
his will, or to any influence which he exercises upon inanimate objects;
distance does not affect it, nor proximity, nor the intervention of any
conductors or non-conductors, whether silk or glass or stone, or even a
brick wall. We can transmit the order to sleep by telephone or by
telegraph. We can practically get the same results while eliminating
even the operator, if we can contrive to influence the imagination or to
affect the physical condition of the subject by any one of a great
number of contrivances.
"What does all this mean? I will refer to one or two facts in relation
to the structure and function of the brain, and show one or two simple
experiments of very ancient parentage and date, which will, I think,
help to an explanation. First, let us recall something of what we know
of the anatomy and localization of function in the brain, and of the
nature of ordinary sleep. The brain, as you know, is a complicated
organ, made up internally of nerve masses, or ganglia, of which the
central and underlying masses are connected with the automatic functions
and involuntary actions of the body (such as the action of the heart,
lungs, stomach, bowels, etc.), while the investing surface shows a
system of complicated convolutions rich in gray matter, thickly sown
with microscopic cells, in which the nerve ends terminate. At the base
of the brain is a complete circle of arteries, from which spring great
numbers of small arterial vessels, carrying a profuse blood supply
throughout the whole mass, and capable of contraction in small tracts,
so that small areas of the brain may, at any given moment, become
bloodless, while other parts of the brain may simultaneously become
highly congested. Now, if the brain or any part of it be deprived of the
circulation of blood through it, or be rendered partially bloodless, or
if it be excessively congested and overloaded with blood, or if it be
subjected to local pressure, the part of the brain so acted upon ceases
to be capable of exercising its functions. The regularity of the action
of the brain and the sanity and completeness of the thought which is one
of the functions of its activity depend upon the healthy regularity of
the quantity of blood passing through all its parts, and upon the
healthy quality of the blood so circulating. If we press upon the
carotid arteries which pass up through the neck to form the arterial
circle of Willis, at the base of the brain, within the skull--of which I
have already spoken, and which supplies the brain with blood--we quickly,
as every one knows, produce insensibility. Thought is abolished,
consciousness lost. And if we continue the pressure, all those automatic
actions of the body, such as the beating of the heart, the breathing
motions of the lungs, which maintain life and are controlled by the
lower brain centers of ganglia, are quickly stopped and death ensues.
"We know by observation in cases where portions of the skull have been
removed, either in men or in animals, that during natural sleep the
upper part of the brain--its convoluted surface, which in health and in
the waking state is faintly pink, like a blushing cheek, from the color
of the blood circulating through the network of capillary
arteries--becomes white and almost bloodless. It is in these upper
convolutions of the brain, as we also know, that the will and the
directing power are resident; so that in sleep the will is abolished and
consciousness fades gradually away, as the blood is pressed out by the
contraction of the arteries. So, also, the consciousness and the
directing will may be abolished by altering the quality of the blood
passing through the convolutions of the brain. We may introduce a
volatile substance, such as chloroform, and its first effect will be to
abolish consciousness and induce profound slumber and a blessed
insensibility to pain. The like effects will follow more slowly upon the
absorption of a drug, such as opium; or we may induce hallucinations by
introducing into the blood other toxic substances, such as Indian hemp
or stramonium. We are not conscious of the mechanism producing the
arterial contraction and the bloodlessness of those convolutions related
to natural sleep. But we are not altogether without control over them.
We can, we know, help to compose ourselves to sleep, as we say in
ordinary language. We retire into a darkened room, we relieve ourselves
from the stimulus of the special senses, we free ourselves from the
influence of noises, of strong light, of powerful colors, or of tactile
impressions. We lie down and endeavor to soothe brain activity by
driving away disturbing thoughts, or, as people sometimes say, 'try to
think of nothing.' And, happily, we generally succeed more or less well.
Some people possess an even more marked control over this mechanism of
sleep. I can generally succeed in putting myself to sleep at any hour of
the day, either in the library chair or in the brougham. This is, so to
speak, a process of self-hypnotization, and I have often practiced it
when going from house to house, when in the midst of a busy practice,
and I sometimes have amused my friends and family by exercising this
faculty, which I do not think it very difficult to acquire. (We also
know that many persons can wake at a fixed hour in the morning by
setting their minds upon it just before going to sleep.) Now, there is
something here which deserves a little further examination, but which it
would take too much time to develop fully at present. Most people know
something of what is meant by reflex action. The nerves which pass from
the various organs to the brain convey with, great rapidity messages to
its various parts, which are answered by reflected waves of impulse. If
the soles of the feet be tickled, contraction of the toes, or
involuntary laughter, will be excited, or perhaps only a shuddering and
skin contraction, known as goose-skin. The irritation of the nerve-end
in the skin has carried a message to the involuntary or voluntary
ganglia of the brain which has responded by reflecting back again nerve
impulses which have contracted the muscles of the feet or skin muscles,
or have given rise to associated ideas and explosion of laughter. In the
same way, if during sleep heat be applied to the soles of the feet,
dreams of walking over hot surfaces--Vesuvius or Fusiyama, or still
hotter places--may be produced, or dreams of adventure on frozen surfaces
or in arctic regions may be created by applying ice to the feet of the
sleeper.
"Here, then, it is seen that we have a mechanism in the body, known to
physiologists as the ideo-motor, or sensory motor system of nerves,
which can produce, without the consciousness of the individual and
automatically, a series of muscular contractions. And remember that the
coats of the arteries are muscular and contractile under the influence
of external stimuli, acting without the help of the consciousness, or
when the consciousness is in abeyance. I will give another example of
this, which completes the chain of phenomena in the natural brain and
the natural body I wish to bring under notice in explanation of the true
as distinguished from the false, or falsely interpreted, phenomena of
hypnotism, mesmerism and electro-biology. I will take the excellent
illustration quoted by Dr. B. W. Carpenter in his old-time, but
valuable, book on 'The Physiology of the Brain.' When a hungry man sees
food, or when, let us say, a hungry boy looks into a cookshop, he
becomes aware of a watering of the mouth and a gnawing sensation at the
stomach. What does this mean? It means that the mental impression made
upon him by the welcome and appetizing spectacle has caused a secretion
of saliva and of gastric juice; that is to say, the brain has, through
the ideo-motor set of nerves, sent a message which has dilated the
vessels around the salivary and gastric glands, increased the flow of
blood through them and quickened their secretion. Here we have, then, a
purely subjective mental activity acting through a mechanism of which
the boy is quite ignorant, and which he is unable to control, and
producing that action on the vessels of dilation or contraction which,
as we have seen, is the essential condition of brain activity and the
evolution of thought, and is related to the quickening or the abolition
of consciousness, and to the activity or abeyance of function in the
will centers and upper convolutions of the brain, as in its other
centers of localization.
"Here, then, we have something like a clue to the phenomena--phenomena
which, as I have pointed out, are similar to and have much in common
with mesmeric sleep, hypnotism or electro-biology. We have already, I
hope, succeeded in eliminating from our minds the false theory--the
theory, that is to say, experimentally proved to be false--that the will,
or the gestures, or the magnetic or vital fluid of the operator are
necessary for the abolition of the consciousness and the abeyance of the
will of the subject. We now see that ideas arising in the mind of the
subject are sufficient to influence the circulation in the brain of the
person operated on, and such variations of the blood supply of the brain
as are adequate to produce sleep in the natural state, or artificial
slumber, either by total deprivation or by excessive increase or local
aberration in the quantity or quality of blood. In a like manner it is
possible to produce coma and prolonged insensibility by pressure of the
thumbs on the carotid; or hallucination, dreams and visions by drugs, or
by external stimulation of the nerves. Here again the consciousness may
be only partially affected, and the person in whom sleep, coma or
hallucination is produced, whether by physical means or by the influence
of suggestion, may remain subject to the will of others and incapable of
exercising his own volition."
In short, Dr. Hart's theory is that hypnotism comes from controlling the
blood supply of the brain, cutting off the supply from parts or
increasing it in other parts. This theory is borne out by the well-known
fact that some persons can blush or turn pale at will; that some people
always blush on the mention of certain things, or calling up certain
ideas. Certain other ideas will make them turn pale. Now, if certain
parts of the brain are made to blush or turn pale, there is no doubt
that hypnotism will follow, since blushing and turning pale are known to
be due to the opening and closing of the blood-vessels. We may say that
the subject is induced by some means to shut the blood out of certain
portions of the brain, and keep it out until he is told to let it in
again.
CHAPTER XII.
Telepathy and Clairvoyance.--Peculiar Power in Hypnotic
State.--Experiments.--"Phantasms of the Living" Explained by Telepathy
It has already been noticed that persons in the hypnotic state seem to
have certain of their senses greatly heightened in power. They can
remember, see and hear things that ordinary persons would be entirely
ignorant of. There is abundant evidence that a supersensory perception
is also developed, entirely beyond the most highly developed condition
of the ordinary senses, such as being able to tell clearly what some
other person is doing at a great distance. In view of the discovery of
the X or Roentgen ray, the ability to see through a stone wall does not
seem so strange as it did before that discovery.
It is on power of supersensory, or extra-sensory perception that what is
known as telepathy and clairvoyance are based. That such things really
exist, and are not wholly a matter of superstition has been thoroughly
demonstrated in a scientific way by the British Society for Psychical
Research, and kindred societies in various parts of the world. Strictly
speaking, such phenomena as these are not a part of hypnotism, but our
study of hypnotism will enable us to understand them to some extent, and
the investigation of them is a natural corollary to the study of
hypnotism, for the reason that it has been found that these
extraordinary powers are often possessed by persons under hypnotic
influence. Until the discovery of hypnotism there was little to go on in
conducting a scientific investigation, because clairvoyance could not be
produced by any artificial means, and so could not be studied under
proper restrictive conditions.
We will first quote two experiments performed by Dr. Cocke which the
writer heard him describe with his own lips.
The first case was that of a girl suffering from hysterical tremor. The
doctor had hypnotized her for the cure of it, and accidentally stumbled
on an example of thought transference. She complained on one occasion of
a taste of spice in her mouth. As the doctor had been chewing some
spice, he at once guessed that this might be telepathy. Nothing was said
at the time, but the next time the girl was hypnotized, the doctor put a
quinine tablet in his mouth. The girl at once asked for water, and said
she had a very bitter taste in her mouth. The water was given her, and
the doctor went behind a screen, where he put cayenne pepper in his
mouth, severely burning himself. No one but the doctor knew of the
experiment at the time. The girl immediately cried and became so
hysterical that she had to be awakened. The burning in her mouth
disappeared as soon as she came out of the hypnotic state, but the
doctor continued to suffer. Nearly three hundred similar experiments
with thirty-six different subjects were tried by Dr. Cocke, and of these
sixty-nine were entirely successful. The others were doubtful or
complete failures.
The most remarkable of the experiments may be given in the doctor's own
words: "I told the subject to remain perfectly still for five minutes
and to relate to me at the end of this time any sensation he might
experience. I passed into another room and closed the door and locked
it; went into a closet in the room and closed the door after me; took
down from the shelf, first a linen sheet, then a pasteboard box, then a
toy engine, owned by a child in the house. I went back to my subject and
asked him what experience he had had.
"He said I seemed to go into another room, and from thence into a dark
closet. I wanted something off the shelf, but did not know what. I took
down from the shelf a piece of smooth cloth, a long, square pasteboard
box and a tin engine. These were all the sensations he had experienced.
I asked him if he saw the articles with his eyes which I had removed
from the shelf. He answered that the closet was dark and that he only
felt them with his hands. I asked him how he knew that the engine was
tin. He said: 'By the sound of it.' As my hands touched it I heard the
wheels rattle. Now the only sound made by me while in the closet was
simply the rattling of the wheels of the toy as I took it off the shelf.
This could not possibly have been heard, as the subject was distant from
me two large rooms, and there were two closed doors between us, and the
noise was very slight. Neither could the subject have judged where I
went, as I had on light slippers which made no noise. The subject had
never visited the house before, and naturally did not know the contents
of the closet as he was carefully observed from the moment he entered
the house."
Many similar experiments are on record. Persons in the hypnotic
condition have been able to tell what other persons were doing in
distant parts of a city; could tell the pages of the books they might be
reading and the numbers of all sorts of articles. While in London the
writer had an opportunity of witnessing a performance of this kind.
There was a young boy who seemed to have this peculiar power. A queer
old desk had come into the house from Italy, and as it was a valuable
piece of furniture, the owner was anxious to learn its pedigree. Without
having examined the desk beforehand in any way the boy, during one of
his trances, said that in a certain place a secret spring would be found
which would open an unknown drawer, and behind that drawer would be
found the name of the maker of the desk and the date 1639. The desk was
at once examined, and the name and date found exactly as described. It
is clear in this case that this information could not have been in the
mind of any one, unless it were some person in Italy, whence the desk
had come. It is more likely that the remarkable supersensory power given
enabled reading through the wood.
We may now turn our attention to another class of phenomena of great
interest, and that is the visions persons in the ordinary state have of
friends who are on the point of death. It would seem that by an
extraordinary effort the mind of a person in the waking state might be
impressed through a great distance. At the moment of death an almost
superhuman mental effort is more likely and possible than at any other
time, and it is peculiar that these visions or phantasms are largely
confined to that moment. The natural explanation that rises to the
ordinary mind is, of course, "Spirits." This supposition is strengthened
by the fact that the visions sometimes appear immediately after death,
as well as at the time and just before. This may be explained, however,
on the theory that the ordinary mind is not easily impressed, and when
unconsciously impressed some time may elapse before the impression
becomes perceptible to the conscious mind, just as in passing by on a
swift train, we may see something, but not realize that we have seen it
till some time afterward, when we remember what we have unconsciously
observed.
The British Society for Psychical Research has compiled two large
volumes of carefully authenticated cases, which are published under the
title, "Phantasms of the Living." We quote one or two interesting cases.
A Miss L. sends the following report:
January 4, 1886.
"On one of the last days of July, about the year 1860, at 3 o'clock
p.m., I was sitting in the drawing room at the Rectory, reading, and my
thoughts entirely occupied. I suddenly looked up and saw most distinctly
a tall, thin old gentleman enter the room and walk to the table. He wore
a peculiar, old-fashioned cloak which I recognized as belonging to my
great-uncle. I then looked at him closely and remembered his features
and appearance perfectly, although I had not seen him since I was quite
a child. In his hand was a roll of paper, and he appeared to be very
agitated. I was not in the least alarmed, as I firmly believed he was my
uncle, not knowing then of his illness. I asked him if he wanted my
father, who, as I said, was not at home. He then appeared still more
agitated and distressed, but made no remark. He then left the room,
passing through the open door. I noticed that, although it was a very
wet day, there was no appearance of his having walked either in mud or
rain. He had no umbrella, but a thick walking stick, which I recognized
at once when my father brought it home after the funeral. On questioning
the servants, they declared that no one had rung the bell; neither did
they see any one enter. My father had a letter by the next post, asking
him to go at once to my uncle, who was very ill in Leicestershire. He
started at once, but on his arrival was told that his uncle had died at
exactly 3 o'clock that afternoon, and had asked for him by name several
times in an anxious and troubled manner, and a roll of paper was found
under his pillow.
"I may mention that my father was his only nephew, and, having no son,
he always led him to think that he would have a considerable legacy.
Such, however, was not the case, and it is supposed that, as they were
always good friends, he was influenced in his last illness, and
probably, when too late, he wished to alter his will."
In answer to inquiries, Miss L. adds:
"I told my mother and an uncle at once about the strange appearance
before the news arrived, and also my father directly he returned, all of
whom are now dead. They advised me to dismiss it from my memory, but
agreed that it could not be imagination, as I described my uncle so
exactly, and they did not consider me to be either of a nervous or
superstitious temperament.
"I am quite sure that I have stated the facts truthfully and correctly.
The facts are as fresh in my memory as if they happened only yesterday,
although so many years have passed away.
"I can assure you that nothing of the sort ever occurred before or
since. Neither have I been subject to nervous or imaginative fancies.
This strange apparition was in broad daylight, and as I was only reading
the 'Illustrated Newspaper,' there was nothing to excite my
imagination."
Hundreds of cases of this kind have been reported by persons whose
truthfulness cannot be doubted, and every effort has been made to
eliminate possibility of hallucination or accidental fancy. That things
of this kind do occur may be said to be scientifically proven.
Such facts as these have stimulated experiment in the direction of
testing thought transference. These experiments have usually been in the
reading of numbers and names, and a certain measure of success has
resulted. It may be added, however, that no claimants ever appeared for
various banknotes deposited in strong-boxes, to be turned over to any
one who would read the numbers. Just why success was never attained
under these conditions it would be hard to say. The writer once made a
slight observation in this direction. When matching pennies with his
brother he found that if the other looked at the penny he could match it
nearly every time. There may have been some unconscious expression of
face that gave the clue. Persons in hypnotic trance are expert muscle
readers. For instance, let such a person take your hand and then go
through the alphabet, naming the letters. If you have any word in your
mind, as the muscle reader comes to each letter the muscles will
unconsciously contract. By giving attention h the muscles you can make
them contract on the wrong letters and entirely mislead such a person.
CHAPTER XIII.
The Confessions of Medium.--Spiritualistic Phenomena Explained on Theory
of Telepathy.--Interesting Statement of Mrs. Piper, the Famous Medium of
the Psychical Research Society.
The subject of spiritualism has been very thoroughly investigated by the
Society for Psychical Research, both in England and this country, and
under circumstances so peculiarly advantageous that a world of light has
been thrown on the connection between hypnotism and this strange
phenomenon.
Professor William James, the professor of psychology at Harvard
University, was fortunate enough some years ago to find a perfect medium
who was not a professional and whose character was such as to preclude
fraud. This was Mrs. Leonora E. Piper, of Boston. For many years she
remained in the special employ of the Society for Psychical Research,
and the members of that society were able to study her case under every
possible condition through a long period of time. Not long ago she
resolved to give up her engagement, and made a public statement over her
own signature which is full of interest.
A brief history of her life and experiences will go far toward
furnishing the general reader a fair explanation of clairvoyant and
spiritualistic phenomena.
Mrs. Piper was the wife of a modest tailor, and lived on Pinckney
street, back of Beacon Hill. She was married in 1881, and it was not
until May 16, 1884, that her first child was born. A little more than a
month later, on June 29, she had her first trance experience. Says she:
"I remember the date distinctly, because it was two days after my first
birthday following the birth of my first child." She had gone to Dr. J.
R. Cocke, the great authority on hypnotism and a practicing physician of
high scientific attainments. "During the interview," says Mrs. Piper, "I
was partly unconscious for a few minutes. On the following Sunday I went
into a trance."
She appears to have slipped into it unconsciously. She surprised her
friends by saying some very odd things, none of which she remembered
when she came to herself. Not long after she did it again. A neighbor,
the wife of a merchant, when she heard the things that had been said,
assured Mrs. Piper that it must be messages from the spirit world. The
atmosphere in Boston was full of talk of that kind, and it was not hard
for people to believe that a real medium of spirit communication had
been found. The merchant's wife wanted a sitting, and Mrs. Piper
arranged one, for which she received her first dollar.
She had discovered that she could go into trances by an effort of her
own will. She would sit down at a table, with her sitter opposite, and
leaning her head on a pillow, go off into the trance after a few minutes
of silence. There was a clock behind her. She gave her sitters an hour,
sometimes two hours, and they wondered how she knew when the hour had
expired. At any rate, when the time came around she awoke. In describing
her experiences she has said:
"At first when I sat in my chair and leaned my head back and went into
the trance state, the action was attended by something of a struggle. I
always felt as if I were undergoing an anesthetic, but of late years I
have slipped easily into the condition, leaning the head forward. On
coming out of it I felt stupid and dazed. At first I said disconnected
things. It was all a gibberish, nothing but gibberish. Then I began to
speak some broken French phrases. I had studied French two years, but
did not speak it well."
Once she had an Italian for sitter, who could speak no English and asked
questions in Italian. Mrs. Piper could speak no Italian, indeed did not
understand a word of it, except in her trance state. But she had no
trouble in understanding her sitter.
After a while her automatic utterance announced the personality of a
certain Dr. Phinuit, who was said to have been a noted French physician
who had died long before. His "spirit" controlled her for a number of
years. After some time Dr. Phinuit was succeeded by one "Pelham," and
finally by "Imperator" and "Rector."
As the birth of her second child approached Mrs. Piper gave up what she
considered a form of hysteria; but after the birth of the child the
sittings, paid for at a dollar each, began again. Dr. Hodgson, of the
London Society for Psychical Research, saw her at the house of Professor
James, and he became so interested in her case that he decided to take
her to London to be studied. She spent nearly a year abroad; and after
her return the American branch of the Society for Psychical Research was
formed, and for a long time Mrs. Piper received a salary to sit
exclusively for the society. Their records and reports are full of the
things she said and did.
Every one who investigated Mrs. Piper had to admit that her case was
full of mystery. But if one reads the reports through from beginning to
end one cannot help feeling that her spirit messages are filled with
nonsense, at least of triviality. Here is a specimen--and a fair
specimen, too--of the kind of communication Pelham gave. He wrote out the
message. It referred to a certain famous man known in the reports as Mr.
Marte. Pelham is reported to have written by Mrs. Piper's hand:
"That he (Mr. Marte), with his keen brain and marvelous perception, will
be interested, I know. He was a very dear friend of X. I was exceedingly
fond of him. Comical weather interests both he and I--me--him--I know it
all. Don't you see I correct these? Well, I am not less intelligent now.
But there are many difficulties. I am far clearer on all points than I
was shut up in the prisoned body (prisoned, prisoning or imprisoned you
ought to say). No, I don't mean, to get it that way. 'See here, H, don't
view me with a critic's eye, but pass my imperfections by.' Of course, I
know all that as well as anybody on your sphere (of course). Well, I
think so. I tell you, old fellow, it don't do to pick all these little
errors too much when they amount to nothing in one way. You have light
enough and brain enough, I know, to understand my explanations of being
shut up in this body, dreaming, as it were, and trying to help on
science."
Some people would say that Pelham had had a little too much whisky toddy
when he wrote that rambling, meaningless string of words. Or we can
suppose that Mrs. Piper was dreaming. We see in the last sentence a
curious mixture of ideas that must have been in her mind. She herself
says:
"I do not see how anybody can look on all that as testimony from another
world. I cannot see but that it must have been an unconscious expression
of my subliminal self, writing such stuff as dreams are made of."
In another place Mrs. Piper makes the following direct statement: "I
never heard of anything being said by myself while in a trance state
which might not have been latent in:
"1. My own mind.
"2. In the mind of the person in charge of the sitting.
"3. In the mind of the person who was trying to get communication with
some one in another state of existence, or some companion present with
such person, or,
"4. In the mind of some absent person alive somewhere else in the
world."
Writing in the Psychological Review in 1898, Professor James says:
"Mrs. Piper's trance memory is no ordinary human memory, and we have to
explain its singular perfection either as the natural endowment of her
solitary subliminal self, or as a collection of distinct memory systems,
each with a communicating spirit as its vehicle.
"The spirit hypothesis exhibits a vacancy, triviality, and incoherence
of mind painful to think of as the state of the departed, and coupled
with a pretension to impress one, a disposition to 'fish' and face
around and disguise the essential hollowness which is, if anything, more
painful still. Mr. Hodgson has to resort to the theory that, although
the communicants probably are spirits, they are in a semi-comatose or
sleeping state while communicating, and only half aware of what is going
on, while the habits of Mrs. Piper's neural organism largely supply the
definite form of words, etc., in which the phenomenon is clothed."
After considering other theories Professor James concludes:
"The world is evidently more complex than we are accustomed to think it,
the absolute 'world ground' in particular being farther off than we are
wont to think it."
Mrs. Piper is reported to have said:
"Of what occurs after I enter the trance period I remember
nothing--nothing of what I said or what was said to me. I am but a
passive agent in the hands of powers that control me. I can give no
account of what becomes of me during a trance. The wisdom and inspired
eloquence which of late has been conveyed to Dr. Hodgson through my
mediumship is entirely beyond my understanding. I do not pretend to
understand it, and can give no explanation--I simply know that I have the
power of going into a trance when I wish."
Professor James says: "The Piper phenomena are the most absolutely
baffling thing I know."
Professor Hudson, Ph.D., LL.D., author of "The Law of Psychic
Phenomena," comes as near giving an explanation of "spiritualism," so
called, as any one. He begins by saying:
"All things considered, Mrs. Piper is probably the best 'psychic' now
before the public for the scientific investigation of spiritualism and
it must be admitted that if her alleged communications from discarnate
spirits cannot be traced to any other source, the claims of spiritism
have been confirmed."
Then he goes on:
"A few words, however, will make it clear to the scientific mind that
her phenomena can be easily accounted for on purely psychological
principles, thus:
"Man is endowed with a dual mind, or two minds, or states of
consciousness, designated, respectively, as the objective and the
subjective. The objective mind is normally unconscious of the content of
the subjective mind. The latter is constantly amenable to control by
suggestion, and it is exclusively endowed with the faculty of telepathy.
"An entranced psychic is dominated exclusively by her subjective mind,
and reason is in abeyance. Hence she is controlled by suggestion, and,
consequently, is compelled to believe herself to be a spirit, good or
bad, if that suggestion is in any way imparted to her, and she
automatically acts accordingly.
"She is in no sense responsible for the vagaries of a Phinuit, for that
eccentric personality is the creation of suggestion. But she is also in
the condition which enables her to read the subjective minds of others.
Hence her supernormal knowledge of the affairs of her sitters. What he
knows, or has ever known, consciously or unconsciously (subjective
memory being perfect), is easily within her reach.
"Thus far no intelligent psychical researcher will gainsay what I have
said. But it sometimes happens that the psychic obtains information that
neither she nor the sitter could ever have consciously possessed. Does
it necessarily follow that discarnate spirits gave her the information?
Spiritists say 'yes,' for this is the 'last ditch' of spiritism.
"Psychologists declare that the telepathic explanation is as valid in
the latter class of cases as it obviously is in the former. Thus,
telepathy being a power of the subjective mind, messages may be conveyed
from one to another at any time, neither of the parties being
objectively conscious of the fact. It follows that a telepathist at any
following seance with the recipient can reach the content of that
message.
"If this argument is valid--and its validity is self-evident--it is
impossible to imagine a case that may not be thus explained on
psychological principles."
Professor Hudson's argument will appeal to the ordinary reader as good.
It may be simplified, however, thus:
We may suppose that Mrs. Piper voluntarily hypnotizes herself. Perhaps
she simply puts her conscious reason to sleep. In that condition the
rest of her mind is in an exalted state, and capable of telepathy and
mind-reading, either of those near at hand or at a distance. Her reason
being asleep, she simply dreams, and the questions of her sitter are
made to fit into her dream.
If we regard mediums as persons who have the power of hypnotizing
themselves and then of doing what we know persons who have been
hypnotized by others sometimes do, we have an explanation that covers
the whole case perfectly. At the same time, as Professor James warns us,
we must believe that the mind is far more complex than we are accustomed
to think it.
***END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK COMPLETE HYPNOTISM: MESMERISM,
MIND-READING AND SPIRITUALISM***
******* This file should be named 19342.txt or 19342.zip *******
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:
http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/9/3/4/19342
Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.
Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial
redistribution.
*** START: FULL LICENSE ***
THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK
To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at
http://www.gutenberg.org/license).
Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works
1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.
1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.
1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.
1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United
States.
1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:
1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or
1.E.9.
1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.
1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.
1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.
1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (www.gutenberg.org),
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.
1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.
1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided
that
- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."
- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.
- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.
- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.
1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.
1.F.
1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.
1.F.2.  LIMITED WARRANTY, DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES - Except for the "Right
of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal
fees.  YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE, STRICT
LIABILITY, BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE
PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH F3.  YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION, THE
TRADEMARK OWNER, AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
1.F.3.  LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND - If you discover a
defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.
1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO OTHER
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE.
1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.
1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.
Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm
Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.
Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at http://www.gutenberg.org/fundraising/pglaf.
Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive
Foundation
The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.
The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email
business@pglaf.org.  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at http://www.gutenberg.org/about/contact
For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director
     gbnewby@pglaf.org
Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation
Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.
The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit http://www.gutenberg.org/fundraising/donate
While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.
International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.
Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations.
To donate, please visit:
http://www.gutenberg.org/fundraising/donate
Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.
Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.
Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.
Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:
     http://www.gutenberg.org
This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.
TOP

THEME OPTIONS

Header type:
Theme Colors:
Color suggestions *
THEME
* May not have full accuracy!